November 27, 2021
The Netherlands (in Dutch language Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt]), often colloquially referred to by the same inhabitants as Holland, is one of the four constituent nations of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; are found mainly in Europe but also include the so-called Caribbean Netherlands (islands of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius, which have the status of special municipalities) in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of the its territory which exceeds 1 meter above sea level and almost 26% which falls below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of reclamation started in the 16th century. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living on a total area of approximately 41,800 square kilometers (16,100m²) - of which 33,500km² (12,900m²) of mainland - the Netherlands is the 12th country. most densely populated in the world and the 5th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 521 inhabitants per km² (1 350 / mi²). However, it is the world's second largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the United States), thanks to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness. The European part borders to the south with Belgium and to the east it borders with Germany; to the north and west it is washed by the North Sea. The capital is Amsterdam, although the residence of the sovereign, the seat of parliament and the seat of government are located in The Hague. The other two main cities are Rotterdam and Utrecht. The Kingdom of the Netherlands acts as a unified nation in matters of defense, foreign policy and citizenship, while the Netherlands, as a constituent nation, acts as an independent nation for all other matters (e.g. interior, health, education and transport). The Netherlands had a vast colonial empire which, at the time of its greatest expansion (17th century), made it the main power of world trade and the cradle of capitalism. They are among the founding states of the ECSC, the EEC, and the European Union. Since 2013 their ruler is King William Alexander, while since 2010 the head of the government is Mark Rutte.