Netherlands

Article

November 27, 2021

The Netherlands (in Dutch language Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt]), often colloquially referred to by the same inhabitants as Holland, is one of the four constituent nations of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; are found mainly in Europe but also include the so-called Caribbean Netherlands (islands of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius, which have the status of special municipalities) in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of the its territory which exceeds 1 meter above sea level and almost 26% which falls below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of reclamation started in the 16th century. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living on a total area of ​​approximately 41,800 square kilometers (16,100m²) - of which 33,500km² (12,900m²) of mainland - the Netherlands is the 12th country. most densely populated in the world and the 5th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 521 inhabitants per km² (1 350 / mi²). However, it is the world's second largest exporter of food and agricultural products (after the United States), thanks to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness. The European part borders to the south with Belgium and to the east it borders with Germany; to the north and west it is washed by the North Sea. The capital is Amsterdam, although the residence of the sovereign, the seat of parliament and the seat of government are located in The Hague. The other two main cities are Rotterdam and Utrecht. The Kingdom of the Netherlands acts as a unified nation in matters of defense, foreign policy and citizenship, while the Netherlands, as a constituent nation, acts as an independent nation for all other matters (e.g. interior, health, education and transport). The Netherlands had a vast colonial empire which, at the time of its greatest expansion (17th century), made it the main power of world trade and the cradle of capitalism. They are among the founding states of the ECSC, the EEC, and the European Union. Since 2013 their ruler is King William Alexander, while since 2010 the head of the government is Mark Rutte.

Nomenclature

In Italian (and in numerous other languages) the terms Netherlands and Holland are often used interchangeably. In reality, the term Holland identifies only two of the twelve provinces that make up the Netherlands: North Holland and South Holland. Similarly, the adjective "Dutch" is used to indicate everything that generally pertains to the Netherlands rather than strictly to the Netherlands. The term "Dutch" is also commonly used to indicate the main language of the Netherlands (also spoken in North Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), while strictly speaking it identifies only the dialects spoken in the provinces of North Holland and of South Holland; the term Dutch (or Dutch) is the most correct to identify this language, but in Italian it is used almost exclusively in the academic field.

History

Submitted by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC, the south of the territory constituted, with the Rhine Limes, the northern frontier of the Roman world until the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century). Following the barbarian invasions, the Saxons, Batavians, Frisians and Franks settled in the area. In the 8th century the Netherlands was part of the Carolingian Empire founded by Charlemagne and in the 10th century the Holy Roman Empire. Subsequently various semi-independent principalities arose, formally subject to the Empire. During this period, a natural event of great importance occurred: on 14 December 1287 a storm destroyed the dune barrier that separated the North Sea from Lake Flevo, permanently flooding a substantial part of the Dutch territory: the region around Lake Flevo. became the b

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