Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI, in Latin: Paulus PP. VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (Concesio, September 26, 1897 - Castel Gandolfo, August 6, 1978), was the 262nd bishop of Rome and pope of the Catholic Church, primate of Italy and 4th sovereign of the Vatican City State , in addition to the other titles proper to the Roman pontiff, from 21 June 1963 until his death. Beatified in 2014, he was proclaimed a saint on October 14, 2018 by Pope Francis.
Childhood and education
Giovanni Battista Montini was born on September 26, 1897 in Concesio, a small town at the entrance to Val Trompia, north of Brescia, where the Montini family, of middle-class extraction, had a house for their summer holidays. The parents, the lawyer Giorgio Montini and Giuditta Alghisi (belonging to the small local rural nobility), were married in 1895 and had three children: Lodovico, born in 1896, who became a lawyer, deputy and senator of the Republic, who died in 1990, Giovanni Battista and, in 1900, Francesco, a doctor, who died suddenly in 1971. His father, at the time of the birth of the future pontiff, ran the Catholic newspaper Il Cittadino di Brescia, and was then appointed deputy for three legislatures in the Italian Popular Party of Don Luigi Sturzo; Giorgio Montini and Giuditta Alghisi both died in 1943 a few months apart.
He was baptized on 30 September 1897, the same day that Teresa of Lisieux died, in the parish church of Concesio (where the original baptismal font is still preserved today), with the names of Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
In 1903 he was enrolled as an external student (due to poor health) in the "Cesare Arici" college in Brescia, run by the Jesuit fathers. In this same school, he attended until classical high school, actively participating in the youth groups of the oratorians of Santa Maria della Pace.
In 1907 he made his first trip with his family to Rome, on the occasion of a private audience with Pope Pius X. In June of the same year he was given the sacraments of first communion and confirmation.
In 1916 he obtained his license from the state high school "Arnaldo da Brescia" and in October of the same year he entered, again as an external student, in the seminary of his city.
From 1918 he collaborated with the student periodical La Fionda, publishing numerous articles of considerable depth. He wrote, for example, in early November 1918:
In 1919 he entered the Italian Catholic University Federation (FUCI), which brought together Catholic university student groups.
On 29 May 1920 he received the priestly ordination in the cathedral of Brescia by the bishop Giacinto Gaggia; the following day he celebrated his first mass in the Sanctuary of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Brescia, concluding his studies that same year in Milan with a doctorate in canon law.
In November of the same year he moved to Rome where he enrolled in the courses of Civil Law and Canon Law at the Pontifical Gregorian University and those of Letters and Philosophy at the State University as well as, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo, to enter the Academy of the Nobles. Ecclesiastics.
In 1923, again on the advice of Pizzardo, he started diplomatic studies at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, collaborating among others with Francesco Borgongini Duca, Alfredo Ottaviani, Carlo Grano, Domenico Tardini and Francis Spellman. Thus began his collaboration with the Secretariat of State, at the behest of Pope Pius XI, he therefore had to renounce the parish experience that he would have wanted to pursue and which he never experienced in his life. He was sent to Warsaw for five months (June-October 1923) as an attachment to the apostolic nunciature. He continued to finance the works of the Morcelliana Library in Brescia, even remotely, focused on promoting a "Christian culture is