July 6, 2022

Paris (AFI: / paˈriʤi /; in French Paris, pronounced / paʁi /; with reference to the ancient city, Lutetia, in French Lutèce / lytɛs /, from the Latin Lutetia Parisiorum) is the capital and the most populated city of France, capital of Île-de-France region and the only municipality to be a department at the same time, according to the 1977 reform and the dictates of the PML law that expanded the old municipal boundaries. With a population of 2 229 095 inhabitants, it is, after Berlin, Madrid and Rome, the fourth most populous municipality in the European Union and, in consideration of the municipal area, has one of the highest population densities in the world. However, the urban extension of the French capital is much wider than its municipal territory: its metropolitan area, also known as "Greater Paris" (in French Grand Paris), has about 12 million people. The city is located in the north of France, on a bend of the Seine, a very favorable position as it is a fundamental transport and traffic hub on the European continent. Indeed, the position of Paris at the center of the main land and river trade routes allowed it to become one of the most influential cities in France starting from the 10th century, with the construction of royal palaces, rich abbeys and the famous cathedral of Notre- From me. Throughout its history, Paris has been able to influence the politics, culture, lifestyle and economy of the entire Western world in a decisive way. In the thirteenth century it gave great impetus to the rebirth of the arts and knowledge thanks to the presence of the prestigious Sorbonne University in the Latin Quarter; in the fourteenth century it became one of the most important cities in the Christian world. In the modern age its influence continued to grow in all senses: in the second half of the seventeenth century it was the capital of the greatest military power on the continent, in the eighteenth century it became the European cenacle of culture and "enlightenment", and then moved on to the 'Nineteenth century to become the city of art, pleasure and entertainment. Inheriting the history of a colonial empire spanning five continents, Paris is regarded as the center of the Francophone world and has maintained a prominent international position, both as an influential world metropolis and as a cultural, political and economic center of undisputed prestige. It houses, among others, the headquarters of the OECD and UNESCO. According to estimates made by CNN, in 2009 Paris was home to 27 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, ahead of Beijing, New York and London. The presence in the city of one of the most important international stock exchanges and its numerous economic, political and tourist activities make Paris one of the main centers in the world. The city is also a reference point for stylists and fashion, being considered one of the world capitals along with Milan, London and New York. Casket containing numerous monuments of incalculable historical and artistic value, Paris represents the very symbol of French culture and its prestige in the world. Tourists often attribute it the qualification of "most romantic city in the globe", a title derived from the period of the Second Empire during which Paris was profoundly transformed by Baron Haussmann, led by Emperor Napoleon III who wanted to make the French capital the most beautiful city of Europe. That of Paris was in fact one of the largest and most criticized urban revolutions (given the gutting of the historic heart of the city) in the history of humanity. A study by the Institut d'aménagement et d'urbanisme (IAU) published in 2019 points out that housing prices push low-income households to leave Paris to settle in neighboring departments such as Senna-Saint-Denis, which tends to provoke a "gentrification" of the capital and a pauperization of the neighborhood departments