Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Article

October 20, 2021

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, also known by the acronym CPSU (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, КПСС ?, transliterated: Kommunističeskaja partija Sovetskogo Sojuza, current political party NPSS). of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1903, it later developed as an autonomous party and was the protagonist of the revolutionary uprisings that affected the Russian Empire in the first part of the twentieth century until successfully leading the October Revolution of 1917, following which it initiated the transformation of Russia into a socialist state and gave life to the Soviet Union (December 1922). of the theoretical basis constituted by the Marxist-Leninist ideology, seen as the scientific foundation of the revolutionary transformation shareholder of the company. It was also a point of reference for the world socialist movement in the context of the Communist International (1919-1943) and, after the victory in the Second World War, in the context of the Cold War. Soviet constitution of 1936 and even more clearly in that of 1977, which placed the description of the executive function of the CPSU among the fundamental principles. The party lost its monopoly of political power in 1990 during the period of perestroika, when reforms aimed at strengthening the institutional apparatus were attempted, and ceased its activity the following year in the dissolution phase of the Soviet Union. its definitive name starting from 1952, while until 1918 it was called the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Bolshevik), in the initials POSDR (b); from 1918 to 1925 Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), or PCR (b); and from 1925 to 1952 Communist Party of the Whole Union (Bolshevik), or PCU (b).

History

The birth of the Bolshevik Party

The term Bolshevik, i.e. majority, as opposed to Menshevik, minority, refers to the balances in the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (POSDR) on the occasion of some of the votes registered in 1903 at the II Congress, which saw the birth within the POSDR of the two currents, led respectively by Lenin and Julij Martov. The assembly, held between Brussels and London due to the total illegality of political parties in the Russian Empire of the time, instead ratified the party program in a unified manner: it provided for a "maximum" variant, with the socialist revolution and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat, and a "minimal" one, which had as its objective a bourgeois-democratic revolution that liquidated the monarchy with the construction of a republic and the introduction of universal suffrage and other democratic rights. confirmed in 1904 by the birth of the Menshevik Organizing Commission and the Office of Bolshevik Majority Committees. With the beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Bolsheviks held the III Congress of the POSDR and the Mensheviks a Party Conference, electing separate governing bodies. A unitary Congress was attempted in the spring of 1906, but the reactionary period that opened in 1907, which weakened the entire social democratic movement, again exacerbated internal tensions. There were strong contrasts even in the same currents, so much so that the Bogdanov group split from the Bolsheviks and various trends emerged among the Mensheviks, including that of the so-called "liquidators", who aimed at the dissolution of the illegal party in order to move to operate in organizations to the definitive structuring of the Bolsheviks as an au party

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