November 28, 2021
The Anti-Comintern Pact was a treaty of political alliance, directed against the Soviet Union, concluded on 25 November 1936 in Berlin between the government of the German Third Reich and that of the Japanese Empire, to which Italy and other countries were subsequently added. .
Purpose and contents
The Japanese-German governments, "recognizing that the goal of the Communist International, known as the Comintern, is to disintegrate and subdue the existing states with all the means at its disposal" and "convinced that the tolerance of interference by the Communist in the internal affairs of nations endanger not only their inner peace and social well-being, but also the peace of the world "they signed this treaty" eager to cooperate in the defense against subversive communist activities "or the Bolshevik pact.
It sealed cooperation through the exchange of information, pressure on public opinion and the fight against Communist agents, aimed at the "common defense against the disintegrating work of the Communist International". The pact also included a secret additional protocol, which revealed its real intention. Far more than aimed at a vague ideological repression of the propaganda activities of communist activists, it envisaged a specific military alliance against the Soviet Union as a nation. Due to its "covered" nature, the secret protocol remained exclusive to Germany and Japan. while the other countries, starting with Italy, adhered only to the public clauses of the treaty.
The accession of Italy and other pre-war agreements
On November 6, 1937 there was the accession of Italy, which originated the first embryo of the tripartite alliance which would then be formalized on September 27, 1940. The entry of Rome was announced by the Stefani Agency with these words: The text of the protocol on the occasion was the following:
The datatio followed (also performed according to the Japanese calendar) and the three signatures. On February 25, 1939, Hungary and Manchukuo (a puppet state created by Japan in 1932 following a conflict with China) also joined the Pact; on 15 April 1939 it was then the turn of Francoist Spain, immediately after the end of its own civil war.
The suspension and the relaunch
The conclusion of the German-Soviet non-aggression treaty of 23 August 1939 practically, if not officially, suspended the Anti-Comintern Pact for almost two years and indeed created cracks in it, as Germany obstructed the passage of the weapons that the Italians would have liked. send to Finland engaged in the Winter War against the USSR. But the outbreak of hostilities between Germany and the Soviet Union, which took place on June 22, 1941 with the start of Operation Barbarossa, gave the same new vigor.
On the fifth anniversary of its conclusion (November 25, 1941), the Anti-Comintern Pact was solemnly relaunched through the accession of the satellite states of Germany (Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Denmark, occupied militarily by the Germans since April 1940), of Italy (Croatia ) and Japan (Wang Jingwei's collaborationist Chinese government). Finland also entered the Pact, which since 25 June was engaged in the war of continuation against the Stalinist colossus); Turkey, on the other hand, despite not having entered the war, was part of the Anti-Comintern Pact as an observer since June 18.
The Copenhagen government placed four conditions on the Germans to enter the Pact: 1) not to have civil or military obligations of any kind; 2) the exclusive assignment to the police for what concerned the actions against the communists; 3) that such actions would have been carried out by the police only in Danish territory; 4) maintaining the status of "neutral country". Ribbentrop became furious and threatened with arrest the Danish Foreign Minister Erik Scavenius, but eventually accepted the requests, with