Warsaw Pact

Article

May 25, 2022

The Warsaw Pact of 1955, also known as the Treaty of Warsaw (in Russian: Варшавский договор ?, transliterated: Varšavskij dogovor) and officially Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance (in Russian: Договор о дружбе : Dogovor o družbe, sotrudničestve i vzaimnoj pomošči), was a military alliance between the socialist states of the eastern bloc born as a reaction to the rearmament and entry into NATO of the Federal Republic of Germany in May of the same year. For thirty-six years, NATO and the Warsaw Pact have never directly clashed in Europe: the US and the USSR, together with their respective allies, implemented strategic policies aimed at containing the adversary on European territory, while working and fighting for influence internationally, participating in conflicts such as the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Bay of Pigs invasion, the dirty war, the Cambodian-Vietnamese war and other conflicts.

History

Tensions between West and East for European security

After the Potsdam Conference of 1945, the territory of defeated Nazi Germany was divided west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones administered by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and France. In April 1949 Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands and Portugal, together with the United Kingdom and the USA, signed the North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Atlantic Pact, in Washington. so did NATO, with the aim of establishing a defensive military alliance and preventing the formation of nationalist militarisms. In May 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany arose in the western part of Germany, followed soon after by the German Democratic Republic in the Soviet occupation zone to the east. On March 20, 1952, the talks on possible German reunification, which began following the "Stalin Note", ended after Western representatives insisted on a united Germany that was not neutral and free to join the European Defense Community (EDC) and rearm. During the Berlin Conference, held between January and February 1954, Soviet foreign minister Vjačeslav Molotov presented some proposals for a possible German reunification and elections for a pan-German government, on condition that the armies of the four occupying powers and the neutrality of Germany, but these were rejected by ministers John Foster Dulles (USA), Anthony Eden (UK) and Georges Bidault (France). Subsequently, Dulles met Eden, the German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and the French Robert Schuman in Paris, urging the allies to avoid discussions with the Soviets and to insist with the EDC. According to US historian John Lewis Gaddis, Western countries were inclined to explore the USSR's offer. Historian Rolf Steininger has argued that Adenauer's belief that "neutralization means Sovietization" had been the main factor in rejection of Soviet proposals and the West German Chancellor feared that reunification would end the dominance of his Christian Democratic Union. Germany (CDU) in the Bundestag. Molotov, fearing that the EDC would go against the USSR in the future and "trying to prevent the formation of groups of European states directed against other European states, proposed a general European treaty on collective security in Europe" open to all European states without considering their social systems, "implying the unification of Germany and the futility of the EDC. However, Eden, Dulles and Bidault rejected the proposal. A month later, the European Treaty was rejected not only by the supporters