Nobel Peace Prize
October 20, 2021
The Nobel Peace Prize was established by Alfred Nobel's will of 1895 and was first awarded in 1901, like other Nobel prizes. Unlike the other Nobel prizes, the one for peace is awarded in Norway, and not in Sweden: the ceremony for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize is in fact held in Oslo, this is because at the time of the establishment of the Nobel prizes, Norway was still united with Sweden. The winner of the prize is chosen by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, made up of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. The announcement of the decision is made in mid-October and the awarding takes place at the Oslo City Hall. It is also the only Nobel Prize that can be awarded not only to individuals but also to entire organizations. The awarding of the prize did not take place on 19 occasions: during the First World War (1914, 1915, 1916, 1918), after the First World War (1923, 1924, 1928 and 1932), during the Second World War (1939, 1940 , 1941, 1942 and 1943) and in the years of the Cold War (1948, 1955, 1956) and the Vietnam War (1966, 1967, 1972). In 1917 and 1944 he was assigned to the International Red Cross. Initially Western, the origins of the candidates gradually spread around the world. The Nobel Peace Prize today has an extraordinary political importance, some prizes have the value of disavowal of authoritarian governments such as that of Aung San Suu Kyi in 1991 against the Burmese junta or that of Liu Xiaobo in 2010 with regard to the Chinese government. Certain appointments had a particular resonance like that of Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 which was strongly contested because Roosevelt was "militarist". Also noteworthy is that of the German anti-Nazi journalist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935 and that of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1989. Overall, the Nobel Prize is awarded above all to historical figures in humanitarian action, the fight against political oppression or the defense of egalitarian rights such as Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther King and Mother Teresa of Calcutta.