Nobel Peace Prize

Article

October 20, 2021

The Nobel Peace Prize was established by Alfred Nobel's will of 1895 and was first awarded in 1901, like other Nobel prizes. Unlike the other Nobel prizes, the one for peace is awarded in Norway, and not in Sweden: the ceremony for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize is in fact held in Oslo, this is because at the time of the establishment of the Nobel prizes, Norway was still united with Sweden. The winner of the prize is chosen by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, made up of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. The announcement of the decision is made in mid-October and the awarding takes place at the Oslo City Hall. It is also the only Nobel Prize that can be awarded not only to individuals but also to entire organizations. The awarding of the prize did not take place on 19 occasions: during the First World War (1914, 1915, 1916, 1918), after the First World War (1923, 1924, 1928 and 1932), during the Second World War (1939, 1940 , 1941, 1942 and 1943) and in the years of the Cold War (1948, 1955, 1956) and the Vietnam War (1966, 1967, 1972). In 1917 and 1944 he was assigned to the International Red Cross. Initially Western, the origins of the candidates gradually spread around the world. The Nobel Peace Prize today has an extraordinary political importance, some prizes have the value of disavowal of authoritarian governments such as that of Aung San Suu Kyi in 1991 against the Burmese junta or that of Liu Xiaobo in 2010 with regard to the Chinese government. Certain appointments had a particular resonance like that of Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 which was strongly contested because Roosevelt was "militarist". Also noteworthy is that of the German anti-Nazi journalist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935 and that of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1989. Overall, the Nobel Prize is awarded above all to historical figures in humanitarian action, the fight against political oppression or the defense of egalitarian rights such as Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther King and Mother Teresa of Calcutta.

Assignment procedure

The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded with a different procedure than other Nobel Prize winners. In his will, Alfred Nobel stipulated that, while the prizes for science and literature had to be decided by Swedish institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics, the Karolinska Institute for Medicine, the Swedish Academy for Literature), that for peace should have been decided by a Committee appointed by the Norwegian Parliament, since Norway, in 1901, was still part of the Kingdom of Sweden and Norway. Each year, the Committee sends requests for candidate suggestions to: past and present members and advisers appointed by the Norwegian Nobel Institute; members of national assemblies and governments of different countries and members of the interparliamentary union; members of the International Court of Justice in The Hague and of the Court of Arbitration; members of the Commission of the Permanent International Peace Office; members of international law institutes; university professors of law, political science, history and philosophy; people awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; directors of military studies institutes or organizations working for peace. By February 1, the reports must arrive, which are examined with the help of some experts. After a first selection, we move on to the final grade.

Criticism and controversy

Unlike other awards, retrospectives, which value a life's work in science or literature, the Nobel Peace Prize has often marked a particular action without necessarily being subjected to the test of time: that of a person or a structure that resolved a conflict

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