King of Sparta

Article

July 5, 2022

Sparta, the most important polis of the southern Peloponnese of ancient Greece, maintained for several centuries, moreover with a constancy completely unknown outside its borders, a system of government that presented some purely monarchical aspects, made even more particular by the fact that two sovereigns, coming from two different dynasties, had the task of governing simultaneously (diarchy). According to tradition, the two lineages, the Agiadi and the Euripontids respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, in turn descendants of Heracles, who conquered the city a few decades after the end of the Trojan war. The following is the list transmitted by tradition, which includes legendary rulers: despite the existence of writings and descriptions on the life and deeds of the descendants of Eurysthenes and Proclus, the diarchic institution is not documented with certainty before the middle of the 6th century BC

Acted dynasty

Eurysthenes c. 1102? - c. 1059 BC? Agide I c. 1059? - c. 1058 BC? Echestrato c. 1058? - c. 1024 BC? Labota c.1024? - c. 987 BC? Dorisso c. 987 BC? - c. 958 BC? Agesilaus I c. 958 BC? - c. 914 BC? Archelaus c. 914 BC? - c. 854 BC? Teleclo c. 854 BC? - c. 814 BC? Alcamene c. 814? - c. 777 BC? Polidoro c. 685? - c. 665 BC? Euricrates c.665 - c.640 BC Anaxander c. 640 - c. 615 BC Euricratides c. 615 - c. 590 BC Leonte c. 590 - 560 BC Anaxandrida II c. 560 - c. 520 BC Cleomenes I c. 520 - c. 488 BC Leonidas I c. 488 - 480 BC Plistarch 480 - c. 459 BC Plistoanatte c. 459 - 445 BC (first regency) Pausanias 445 - 426 BC (first regency) Plistoanatte c. 426 - 408 BC (second regency) Pausanias 408 - 395 BC (second regency) Agesipoli I 394 - 380 BC Cleombrotus I 380 - 371 BC Agesipoli II 371 - 370 BC Cleomenes II 370 - 309 BC Areo I 309 - 265 BC Acrotated 265 - 262 BC Areo II 262 - 254 BC Leonidas II 254 - 242 BC (first regency) Cleombrotus II 242 - 241 BC Leonidas II 241 - 235 BC (second regency) Cleomenes III 235 - 222 BC Agesipoli III 219 - 215 BC

Euripontid dynasty

Procles Soo Euriponte Pritani Polydette Eunomo Carilao Nicander c. 750 BC? - 720 BC? Theopompus c.720? - c. 675 BC? (Anaxandrida I c. 675 - c. 645 BC)? Zeussidamo c. 645 - c. 625 BC Anaxidamus c. 625 - c. 600 BC Archidamus I c. 600 - c. 575 BC Agasicle c.575 - c.550 BC Ariston c. 550 - c. 515 BC Demarated c. 515 - c. 479 BC? Leotichida c. 491 - 469 BC Archidamus II 469 - 427 BC Agide II 427 - 401/400 BC Agesilao II 401/400 - 360 BC Archidamus III 360 - 338 BC Agide III 338 - 331 BC Eudamida I 331 - c. 305 BC Archidamus IV c.305 - c.275 BC Eudamida II c.275 - c.245 BC Agide IV c. 245 - 241 BC Eudamida III 241 - 228 BC Archidamus V 228 - 227 BC Euclid 227 - 221 BC (Euclid was actually an Agiad-brother of him Cleomenes III deposed the cosovrane Euripontides and gave his powers to Euclid) Lycurgus 219 - 212 BC

After Sellasia

Following the defeat of Cleomenes III in the battle of Sellasia at the hands of Antigonus III Dosone of Macedon, and his allies of the Achaean League, the Spartan system of government began to collapse. In Sparta the republic reigned from 221 to 219 BC. Agesipoli III (Agiade) 219 - 215 BC - the last king Agiad of Sparta. Lycurgus (Euripontides) 219 - 210 BC Macanida (tyrant) 210 - 207 BC Pelops (Euripontides) 210 - 206 BC - the last king of the historical dynasties, antagonist of Macanida. Nabis (usurper Euripontides) 208 - 192 BC Laconic-last king of Sparta: on the death of Nabis he reigned for a very short time in 192 BC The Achaean League absorbed Sparta in 192 BC, forty-six years before the transformation of Greece into a Roman province, with the name of Achaea.

Other projects

Wikimedia Commons contains images or other files about kings of Sparta

External links

(EN) Livio, Euripontidi and Agiadi Archived June 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive., A treatise by Jona Lendering.