Czech Republic


November 27, 2021

The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika,), also known as Czechia (Česko), is a member state of the European Union, located in central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the south-east, Austria to the south, Germany to the west and Poland to the north. It is a landlocked state. Its capital is Prague. It is historically made up of three major regions: Bohemia (west), Moravia (east) and Silesia (divided with Poland). Born on 1 January 1993, together with Slovakia, from the peaceful split of Czechoslovakia, which since 1990 had taken the name of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, the Czech Republic is part of the European Union and NATO and is one of the safest states to the world, according to the Global Peace Index 2019. It has not adopted the euro as its currency.


From the barbarian invasions to Great Moravia

In the 1st century BC Bohemia was a land of conquests by the Germanic tribes, probably the Suebi and Quadi and specifically the tribes of the Marcomanni. This induced the populations of the Boi to move to the territories of modern Switzerland and to the southeast of Gaul, while the populations that remained were soon absorbed by the Marcomanni. In the 6th century AD the Bohemian and Moravian territory they occupied was colonized by Slavic populations. In the 7th century, Moravia was the heart of the first Slavic kingdom, the Kingdom of Samos, which stretched from the River Váh to the Tatras. At the end of the 8th century, the Principality of Moravia was established, which in 833, with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra (today's Slovakia and parts of northern Hungary), became the State of Great Moravia. With Svatopluk I the kingdom reached its maximum expansion: it occupied the territory of today's Czech Republic and Slovakia, the western part of today's Hungary (Pannonia), as well as Lusatia (in today's Germany) and Silesia and the Upper Basin Vistula (in Southern Poland). After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Moravian princes left the kingdom to become vassals of Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after the invasions of the Magyars in the 906-7 years. Following the defeat of the latter by Emperor Otto I of Saxony in the battle of Lechfeld in 955, Boleslaus I přemyslide, king of Bohemia and ally of Otto, received Moravia. Boleslaus I of Poland annexed Moravia in 999 and ruled it until 1019, when Prince Přemyslide Bretislao reconquered it. On the death of his father in 1035, Bretislao also became ruler of Bohemia. In 1054 Bretislao decreed that the Bohemian and Moravian lands would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he arranged that his younger son should rule part of Moravia as a vassal of his elder brother.

The Kingdom of Bohemia

The Kingdom of Bohemia (in Czech: České království; in German: Königreich Böhmen; in Latin: Regnum Bohemiae) was a state located in the region of Bohemia, in central Europe, in the territories currently corresponding to the Czech Republic. The King of Bohemia was, for most of the kingdom's history, also a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806, and many kings of Bohemia were also emperors themselves. The capital, Prague, was the de facto center of the Holy Roman Empire in the late 14th century, and again gained vigor in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. From 1526, the kingdom was continuously ruled by the House of Habsburg first and by the Habsburg-Lorraine then. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire it became part of the Austrian Empire as a direct domain and from 1867 it officially became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bohemia always remained formally a separate kingdom from the rest of the Empire's territories, limited to being included as the "crown land of the Austrian Empire". In the last years of the existence of the Aust Empire

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