Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia

Article

January 24, 2022

The Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia (Socijalistička Federativna Republika Yugoslavija, SFRJ) was the institutional form taken by Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1992, the year of its dissolution following the Yugoslav wars: locally it is also referred to as "Druga Yugoslavija" (" Second Yugoslavia ') or also' Bivša Yugoslavija '(' Former Yugoslavia '). It bordered to the north with Austria and Hungary, to the east with Romania and Bulgaria, to the south with Albania and Greece and to the west with Italy and the Adriatic Sea. During the Cold War it was an important member of the non-aligned countries.

History

In ancient Yugoslavia (Yugoslavija, Land of the Southern Slavs, Југославија) ​​various languages ​​were spoken: Serbo-Croatian (including with this denomination the language spoken in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro), Slovenian, Macedonian (language made official in 1945), Hungarian (majority in most of Vojvodina and along the border areas with Hungary of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia), Albanian in Kosovo, Italian (Istria, Rijeka, Dalmatia) , as well as other Albanian, Turkish, Slovak, Romanian (Istrorumeno) and Venetian dialects. Yugoslavia united different historical, cultural and religious realities of its individual federal states. Slovenia and Croatia had long been subjected to the Austro-Hungarian domination and with it were part of Western Christian-Catholic culture and therefore used the Latin alphabet. Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia, on the other hand, had suffered until after 1389, following the defeat of Kosovo Polje against the Turks, the Turkish domination and belonged to the Eastern Christian-Orthodox area so they used the Cyrillic alphabet. Bosnia had an even more complex situation: it had undergone various dominations that had meant that within this state there were Serbs (Orthodox), Croats (Catholics), Bosniaks (Muslims) and a small Sephardi Jewish community, veterans of those Jews who after the Spanish reconquest had to leave Spain and found refuge only in Bosnia. In this republic there were therefore at least four religions (Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim and Jewish) and four alphabets (Latin, Cyrillic, Arabic and Hebrew). Yugoslavia was not part of the Warsaw Pact and implemented a particular form of socialism based on the self-management of the workers. The Republic was first proclaimed on November 29, 1943 as a result of the second meeting of the AVNOJ, Anti-Fascist People's Liberation Council of Yugoslavia, held in Jajce in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the middle of World War II. Pressure from the Allies led in 1944 to the Tito-Šubašić Agreement with the exiled authorities of the old Kingdom of Yugoslavia, on the basis of which any decision on the form of state was suspended by coining the transitional and neutral name of Federal Democratic Yugoslavia (Demokratska Federativna Yugoslavija , DFJ) with which the AVNOJ authorities settled in Belgrade just liberated by the partisans of the People's Liberation Army together with the troops of the Red Army. As soon as the war ended in 1945, elections were held influenced by the effective Communist power over the country, following which the Constituent Assembly formally proclaimed the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Federativna Narodna Republika Yugoslavija, FNRJ), while it was in 1963 that the came to the definitive name (Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia - Socijalistička Federativna Republika Yugoslavija, SFRJ), corresponding to the new Constitution in the presidential and explicitly socialist sense. Its first Head of State was Ivan Ribar while Marshal Tito became Prime Minister. In 1953 Tito was elected president, a position that became life with the new Constitution of 1974. Tito died on May 4, 1980 and "collective head of state" became the

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