November 28, 2021

Russia (in Russian: Россиия ?, transliterated: Rossija,), officially the Russian Federation (in Russian: Россиийская Федераяция ?, transliterated: Rossijskaja Federacija,), is a transcontinental state that extends for a quarter in Europe and for all the rest in Asia and is the largest country in the world, with an area of ​​17864345 km².It borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, North Korea, Mongolia and finally the disputed territories of Donetsk, Lugansk, South Ossetia and Abkhazia; together with China, it is the state in the world with the largest number of neighboring states (14), while, also considering the states with reduced international recognition of Donetsk, Lugansk, Abkhazia and South Ossetia (the latter two recognized by Russia), the States bordering Russia become 18. It also has maritime borders with Japan (across the Sea of ​​Okhotsk) and the United States (across the Bering Strait). It is bathed in the North-West by the Baltic Sea in the Gulf of Finland, in the North by the Arctic Ocean, in the East by the Pacific Ocean and in the South by the Black and Caspian Seas. It also includes the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave, between the Baltic Sea, Poland and Lithuania. In 2016 it had about 144 million inhabitants, has Moscow as its capital and is traditionally divided between European and Asian Russia by the Ural mountains. As the main successor of the Soviet Union, Russia retained a permanent member seat on the United Nations Security Council. According to some academics, it still remains a great power, among the protagonists of the history of the twentieth century, both in the Second World War and in the Second World War, with the Cold War and the opposition through the Eastern Bloc to the so-called Western Bloc, which also included the other superpower, the United States. It is a state with strong political influence within the Commonwealth of Independent States, which includes all the former republics of the Soviet Union except the three Baltic republics, Turkmenistan, Georgia (released in 2008) and Ukraine (released in 2008). as an observer member in 2014). It is also one of the founding states of the Eurasian Union, which includes, in addition to Russia, Belarus, Armenia and Kazakhstan and sees Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as observer states. In the early years of the 21st century, the economy presented growth rates among the highest globally, so much so that Russia is considered one of the five countries referred to by the acronym BRICS. The international financial crisis, however, made itself felt hard since autumn 2008, casting doubt on many of the certainties acquired in a decade of expansion. On March 18, 2014, following the outcome of a referendum which saw the overwhelming victory of those in favor of annexation to Russia and was launched by the political forces of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea which had unilaterally proclaimed itself independent from Ukraine on March 11 2014, the administrative process of annexation of the Crimean peninsula (including therefore also the autonomous city of Sevastopol) as a new federal subject of the Russian Federation began, although the occupation is not recognized as legal by the majority of the international community.


Before Kievan Rus'

In the centuries preceding the Common Era, the vast lands of southern Russia were inhabited by Indo-European peoples (of which it was probably the land of origin) such as the Scythians, who alternated with the Sarmatians and, in the early Middle Ages, the Slavs; in the area that later became the center of the future Russian state, namely the Moscow basin, for a long time before the 10th century people of Finnish or Lithuanian lineage lived. Between the third and sixth centuries the steppes underwent, in successive waves, the rise of nomadic peoples g

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