Siena (, AFI: / ˈsjɛna /) is an Italian town of 54 132 inhabitants, capital of the province of the same name in Tuscany.
The city is universally known for its huge historical, artistic and landscape heritage and for its substantial stylistic unity of medieval urban furniture, as well as for the famous Palio. In 1995 its historic center was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city is home to the Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, founded in 1472 and therefore the oldest bank in business as well as the longest-running in the world.
Siena is located in central Tuscany in the middle of a vast hilly landscape, between the valleys of the rivers Arbia to the south, Merse to the south-west and Elsa to the north, between the Chianti hills to the north-east, the Montagnola to the west and the Crete Sienese to the southeast.
Seismic classification: zone 3 (medium-low seismicity), PCM 3274 Ordinance of 20/03/2003
Based on the thirty-year average 1951-1980, actually elaborated between 1951 and 1978 and not dissimilar to the thirty-year climate reference average 1961-1990 of the World Meteorological Organization, the average temperature of the coldest month, January, stands at + 5.7 ° C, while the average temperature of the hottest month, July, is +22.9 ° C.
Average annual rainfall is 750 mm, with a minimum in summer and a maximum peak in autumn.
Climate classification: zone D, 1943 GR / G
Atmospheric diffusivity: medium, Ibimet CNR 2002
On top of the hill overlooking the village of Torri in Sovicille, there is the prehistoric Neolithic settlement of Sienavecchia. The name of Sienavecchia seems to actually date back to the ancient multicentric group of the Etruscan Saenae.
According to the legend, Romulus sent his captains Camellio and Montorio to win Ascanio (or Aschio) and Senio, supposed sons of Remus and founders of an inhabited area of the Saenae; Camellio, for his part, founded the nucleus of Camollia and Montorio founded Castelmontorio.
Instead, the nearby village of Brenna (Sovicille), according to tradition, owes its name to the well-known Brenno chief of the Senoni Gauls, who reached the region after being expelled from Rome at the beginning of the 4th century BC.
Historical documents instead describe Siena founded as a Roman colony, at the time of Emperor Augustus, known as Saena Iulia.
Inside the historic center of Siena some sites from the Etruscan era have been found, which may suggest the foundation of the city by the Etruscans. According to authoritative studies, in fact, the name Siena may derive from the Etruscan noble family Saina / Seina, epigraphically attested in Montalcino, Chiusi and Perugia.
The first known document of the Sienese community dates back to 70: Senator Manlio Patruito reported to Rome that he was beaten and ridiculed with a fake funeral during his official visit to Saena Iulia, a small military colony in Tuscia. The Roman Senate decided to punish the main culprits and to severely call the Sienese to greater respect for Roman authority.
From the early Middle Ages there are no documents that can illuminate the cases of civil life in Siena. There is some news relating to the establishment of the bishopric and diocese, especially for the issues that arose between the Bishop of Siena and that of Arezzo, due to the boundaries of the jurisdictional area of each: issues in which the Lombard king Liutprando intervened, pronouncing a sentence in favor of the Arezzo diocese. But the Sienese were not satisfied and therefore in the year 853, when Italy passed from Lombard to Frankish domination, they managed to obtain the annulment of the sentence issued by King Liutprand.
It seems that at the time of the Lombards, Siena was governed by a representative of the king: Gastaldo who was later replaced by an imperial count after the coronation of Charlemagne. The first earl referred to