Slovakia

Article

November 28, 2021

Slovakia (Slovàcchia), officially Slovak Republic (in Slovak Slovensko or Slovenská republika) is a landlocked state established as a parliamentary republic, located in Central-Eastern Europe. It has a population of more than 5 million and an area of ​​approximately 49,000 square kilometers. The largest city is also the capital, Bratislava, and the second largest city is Košice. It borders the Czech Republic to the northwest, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south and Austria to the southwest. It is a member state of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD and the WTO. The official language is Slovak, a language belonging to the Slavic language group. The Slavs arrived in what is now Slovakian territory between the 5th and 6th centuries during the barbarian invasions. Throughout history, different parts of the present territory belonged to the Kingdom of Samos (the first known political entity of the Slavs), the Principality of Nitra, Great Moravia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Czechoslovakia. On October 30, 1918, the Martin Declaration or Declaration of the Slovak people was approved. An independent Slovak state existed briefly during World War II as a puppet state of Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1944. From 1945 Slovakia became part of Czechoslovakia again. The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic were born on 1 January 1993 from the division, sanctioned by the parliament of Czechoslovakia, which had already taken the name of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic since 1990. Slovakia belongs to the group of advanced states. In 2004 it joined the European Union and in 2009 it adopted the euro. Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only states of the former Eastern Bloc to be part of the European Union, the Eurozone, the Schengen zone and NATO at the same time.

History

Czechoslovakia

After the First World War, Slovakia underwent a period of communist influence, which led to the foundation - on the model of Béla Kun's experience - of the Slovak Soviet Republic, which lasted only a few days: in fact, as early as July 1918, once the regime collapsed Soviet, the country joined with Bohemia and Moravia, constituting Czechoslovakia, together with the Czechs, to which the Slovaks, however, did not feel so similar, and with a strong anti-Hungarian connotation (an element still persistent today in the Slovak identity) due to the behavior arrogant and humiliating suffered by the Slovaks during the long rule of Budapest. An important figure and exponent of independent Czechoslovakia was Milan Rastislav Štefánik. On March 14, 1939, shortly before Germany's annexation of Bohemia and Moravia, the Slovak parliament declared independence. A conservative regime was established led by the parish priest of Bánovce nad Bebravou Jozef Tiso, who became President of the Republic and secretary of the Slovak People's Party of Hlinka, founded by Abbot Andrej Hlinka, advocate of Slovak autonomy. Historians refer to this state entity as the First Slovak Republic, to distinguish it from the second (the current one). After the Second World War, Slovakia came under the Soviet zone of influence, lost its independence, and Czechoslovakia was reconstituted, albeit with the loss of the territories of sub-Carpathian Ruthenia annexed to Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union. During the period from 1969 to 1990 the republic took the name of the Slovak Socialist Republic, while remaining together with the Czech Socialist Republic in a federal union called the Czechoslovakian RS.

Role of the Communist Party (1948–1989)

After World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and in 1947 Jozef Tiso was hanged for collaboration

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