Suriname

Article

November 27, 2021

Suriname, officially the Republic of Suriname (in Dutch Republiek Suriname; in sranan tongo Ripoliku Sranan), is a republic in South America with an area of ​​163 270 km². It has 543 925 inhabitants and has Paramaribo as its capital. Suriname is the smallest state in South America in terms of territorial extension, excluding French Guiana, the overseas department of France. It borders the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Brazil to the south and Guyana to the west. The official language is Dutch, which is also the lingua franca of the country along with Sranan Tongo. The other most widely used languages ​​are Hindi, Javanese and Saramaccan.

History

Colonial period

In the early 16th century the area was explored by British, French and Spanish expeditions. The following century, in the fertile plains along the many rivers, plantations were established by the British and the Dutch. The first documented colony in the area arose along the Suriname River and was named Marshall's Creek, after the surname of an Englishman. Conquered by the Dutch in 1667, it remained under their government under the name of Dutch Guyana until 1954.

Independence

The country gained independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 25 November 1975. However, as early as 1954 Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles and the Netherlands had cooperated on the basis of egalitarian relations. On February 25, 1980, Dési Bouterse took power in a military coup. Bouterse established economic relations with Cuba, Libya and the USSR, but denying any Communist sympathy and indeed declaring himself anti-Communist. These reports came to worry the United States, which even speculated an invasion plan to overthrow Bouterse, unable to tolerate the risk of a new socialist state in South America. After the US military operation Urgent Fury in Grenada Bouterse, however, reduced his socialist ambitions. The military dictatorship ended with the 1991 elections: the civil war in Suriname, which began in 1986 between the military and the Jungle Commando led by Ronnie Brunswijk, had helped to weaken the power of Bouterse.

Geography

Major cities

Afobaka Albina Bensdorp Brokopondo Brownsweg Charlottenburg Groningen Kwakoegron Moengo Nieuw Amsterdam Nieuw Nickerie Paramaribo - capital Paranam Totness Wageningen Zanderij

Morphology

Main mountains

Juliana Top 1.280 m Tafelberg 1,026 m Hendrik Top 957 m Lely Berg 750 m Alimimuni Piek 728 m De Goeje Geb 658 m Nassau Berg 569 m

Major mountain ranges

Wilhelmina Mountains 1,280 m Mitaraka massif 690 m

Hydrography

Main rivers

Coppename Courantyne Kabalebo Lawa Litani Lucie Marowijne or Maroni (in sranan tongo Marwina-Liba) Nickerie Saramacca Suriname Tapanahoni Cottica

Main lakes

Brokopondo lake or W.J. van Blommestein

Climate

The climate in Suriname is mostly tropical, with abundant rainfall on the coast and in the interior region.

Company

Demographics

The population of Suriname, according to the 2012 estimate of 541 638 inhabitants, is made up of numerous ethnic groups, the largest of which (27%) is that given by the descendants of Indians from India during the nineteenth century. Another rather large ethnic group is that of the Creoles, the white descendants of Europeans (16%); Javanese from the Dutch East Indies make up 14% of the total. Numerous minor ethnic groups. 90% of the resident population lives in the capital Paramaribo or, in any case, in places on the coast. Part of the Surinamese community has recently moved to the Netherlands.

Ethnicities

The largest ethnic group are Indians who make up 27% of the Surinamese population, followed by Africans (21%),

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