Sweden

Article

November 28, 2021

Sweden (AFI: / ˈzvɛt̚tsja /; in Swedish: Sverige, [ˈsvæɾʝe]), officially called the Kingdom of Sweden (in Swedish: Konungariket Sverige), is a member state of the European Union, located on the Scandinavian peninsula. It borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the north-east; it is bathed by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia to the east, and by the straits of the Skagerrak and Kattegat to the southwest; the Øresund strait, which separates Sweden from Denmark, has been crossed since 2000 by the bridge of the same name which connects the two countries respectively between Malmö and Copenhagen. With its 449 964 km² of surface, Sweden is the fifth largest country in political Europe after Russia, Ukraine, France and Spain, as well as the third largest in the Union. It extends over a length of more than 1 500 km as the crow flies from north to south. Population density is low and tends to be concentrated in major cities. The internal territory is largely occupied by forests. The state is rich in natural resources (timber, iron, water) and the Swedish economy allows the population to enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world: Sweden is firmly at the top of the UN development rankings. human. Sweden is a parliamentary monarchy whose ruler has been Charles XVI Gustav since 1973. The prime minister is Stefan Löfven. Swedish has been an official language since 1 July 2009. It entered the European Union on 1 January 1995. Until the 19th century, Sweden was, on the other hand, one of the poorest states in Europe. Later, the development of transport allowed an intense exploitation of its natural resources (wood and iron), a factor that led to a vigorous development. A high level of education and economic liberalizations contributed, at the end of the nineteenth century, to the affirmation of an advanced manufacturing industry. The first decades of the twentieth century were characterized by the emergence of the welfare state, which remains among the most efficient in the world.

Geography

The territory is mainly mountainous to the west, where the Scandinavian Mountains are located that separate the country from Norway. It is a mature relief, dating back to the Caledonian orogeny, therefore characterized by rounded shapes, with the exception of some reliefs exacerbated by glacial erosion. The strictly mountainous area (which culminates in the 2103 m of the Kebnekaise) gradually slopes down to a vast, particularly extensive plateau in the north of the country, yielding to the alluvial plains near the coasts. The central part of the country, Svealand (from the name of the ancient inhabitants, the "Svear") is mainly flat, as is the southernmost Götaland ("land of the Goths"): in these regions there are many lakes, the largest of which they are the Vänern, the Vättern and the Mälaren. These are also the most cultivated areas, thanks to the not too continental climate, also softened by the lake extensions. The main islands of Sweden are Gotland and Öland, both in the Baltic Sea: in reality all the Swedish coasts are characterized by a myriad of small islands, residues of glacial and paraglacial activity, and often rapidly rising due to postglacial eustatism. The capital itself, Stockholm, stands on hundreds of islands connected to each other and to the mainland by a myriad of bridges. The climate of Sweden varies from cool temperate to cold temperate boreal. Due to the climate, agriculture is not very developed, but in the most fertile areas it is possible to grow potatoes and cereals, while the less mild areas are the realm of a careful exploitation of forest resources. The subsoil is very rich in iron deposits, located in the far north, which, like the lands bordering the border with Norway, is occupied by sub-polar vegetation, limiting its exploitation to reindeer breeding. Sweden is part of the boreal region.

Environment

In the s culture

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