November 28, 2021
Sweden (AFI: / ˈzvɛt̚tsja /; in Swedish: Sverige, [ˈsvæɾʝe]), officially called the Kingdom of Sweden (in Swedish: Konungariket Sverige), is a member state of the European Union, located on the Scandinavian peninsula. It borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the north-east; it is bathed by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia to the east, and by the straits of the Skagerrak and Kattegat to the southwest; the Øresund strait, which separates Sweden from Denmark, has been crossed since 2000 by the bridge of the same name which connects the two countries respectively between Malmö and Copenhagen. With its 449 964 km² of surface, Sweden is the fifth largest country in political Europe after Russia, Ukraine, France and Spain, as well as the third largest in the Union. It extends over a length of more than 1 500 km as the crow flies from north to south. Population density is low and tends to be concentrated in major cities. The internal territory is largely occupied by forests. The state is rich in natural resources (timber, iron, water) and the Swedish economy allows the population to enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world: Sweden is firmly at the top of the UN development rankings. human. Sweden is a parliamentary monarchy whose ruler has been Charles XVI Gustav since 1973. The prime minister is Stefan Löfven. Swedish has been an official language since 1 July 2009. It entered the European Union on 1 January 1995. Until the 19th century, Sweden was, on the other hand, one of the poorest states in Europe. Later, the development of transport allowed an intense exploitation of its natural resources (wood and iron), a factor that led to a vigorous development. A high level of education and economic liberalizations contributed, at the end of the nineteenth century, to the affirmation of an advanced manufacturing industry. The first decades of the twentieth century were characterized by the emergence of the welfare state, which remains among the most efficient in the world.