United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (from which the acronym UNESCO, pronounced / uˈnɛsko / or / uˈnesko /) is a specialized agency of United Nations created with the purpose of promoting peace and understanding between nations through education, science, culture, communication and information to promote "universal respect for justice, the rule of law and for human rights and fundamental freedoms "as defined and affirmed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Founded during the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME), its Constitution was signed on November 16, 1945 and entered into force on November 24, 1946, after ratification by twenty states.
UNESCO was developed during the preparatory work that took place between November 16, 1945 and November 24, 1946, as part of the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME). This group of Ministers of Education from the Allied anti-Nazi countries met for the first time in London in 1942, in the middle of World War II.
As early as 1942, the need for the creation of a supranational body capable of spreading the culture of peace, democracy and equality of men that should have taken care of intellectual issues in the postwar period. Almost immediately the idea of establishing an international organization with a global impact developed.During the 1943 Conference, the text of the UNESCO Constitution, the UNESCO Constitution, was drafted, which was signed on November 16, 1945 and entered into force on November 4, 1946, after ratification by twenty states: Saudi Arabia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, Norway, New Zealand , United Kingdom, Dominican Republic, United States of America, South Africa and Turkey.
Italy was unanimously admitted on November 8, 1947 during the second session of the General Conference which took place in Mexico City. "This admission was finalized immediately afterwards, on January 27, 1948, with the deposit in London of the instrument of ratification of the Constitutive Act of the Organization by our Government. This recognition had the moral value of a first step towards the admission of Italy at the UN, which was unfortunately encountering considerable difficulties precisely in that period. In Italy, in any case, once the London Convention on UNESCO was made executive with the presidential decree of 12 July 1949, the National Commission for Education, Science and Culture with the Interministerial Decree of 11 February 1950 ". After the end of the Second World War, many States decided, for issues related to internal political history and international events, to no longer participate in the UNESCO but then retraced their steps and currently the United Nations Specialized Agency for Education, Science and Development has 195 Member States and 11 Ass idle.
As of April 2016, 195 countries plus 10 Associate Members are members of UNESCO. The UNESCO headquarters is in Paris and operates educational, scientific and cultural exchange programs from Regional Offices that carry out their activities on almost the entire planet. UNESCO-sponsored projects include international science programs; literacy, technical and teacher training programs; regional and cultural history projects; and international cooperation to conserve the planet's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights.
One of UNESCO's missions is to maintain a heritage list