Soviet Union


October 20, 2021

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (in Russian: Союivaliз Совелатских Социалистиических Респуйблик, СССР ?, transliterated: Sojuz Sovetskih SocialističeskihRSx's acronym Soviet / stsk's acronym Soviet / sʌtsk RespRespect rx's acronym, sʌxk's acronym Soviet / SSR (in Russian: Совейтский Союivaliз ?, transliterated: Sovetskij Sojuz, / sʌ'vʲɛtskɪj sʌjus /), was a federal state that stretched between Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, born on 30 December 1922 on the ashes of the Russian empire after the civil war Russian and officially disbanded on December 26, 1991. It was made up of 15 socialist republics, the largest of which was Russia, itself subdivided into autonomous federated republics. The distance between its two extreme points east and west was more than 10 000 kilometers (more than 90 degrees of longitude); its westernmost point was the Kaliningrad Oblast (now in Russia), on the border with Poland, and its easternmost point was Cape Dežnëv on the Bering Strait, which divided it from the North American continent about 80 kilometers away. In particular, one of its islands in the strait, the Great Diomede, is only 3 km from the Little Diomede, belonging to the United States of America: it was the shortest distance between the two military superpowers of the time. It was the largest country in the world with 22 402 000 km² of surface area, equal to one sixth of the land emerged, as well as the largest country in Asia and Europe, for each of the parts of continental competence. Axis powers in World War II became an economic and military superpower, managing to impose its political and social system even beyond national borders, especially in Eastern Europe. His confrontation with the Western bloc led by the United States of America, the other superpower that emerged at the time, led to the Cold War, which formally ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia took over from the USSR in the United Nations Security Council and the G8 in the late 1990s, and has collected much of the Soviet military and geopolitical legacy. The list of republics making up the federation underwent numerous changes over time. In the years preceding its dissolution, fifteen republics were part of it. The largest by area, economy and population and the most important politically was Russia. The territory of the Soviet Union also underwent various changes and in the most recent period corresponded approximately to that of the late Russian Empire, without however Alaska, Finland and Poland. The country's political organization included only one officially recognized political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), led by a general secretary and the politburo.


Russia was one of the few European countries that did not undergo a democratic and liberal transformation of its economic, social and political structures during the nineteenth century. The tensions between the needs for change expressed by a part of the population and a static political model, based on an autocratic monarchy, were at the origin of three revolutions. The first, unsuccessful, took place in 1905, following the defeat in the war against Japan. The second and third occurred in 1917, respectively in March (February according to the Julian calendar, followed by the Russian Orthodox Church and at that time in force in Russia) and November (October), triggered by serious political and social problems, by a widespread discontent with the monarchy and the terrible crisis suffered by the Russian Empire during the First World War.

The February Revolution

On February 23 (March 8 of the Gregorian calendar) 1917 an insurrection, largely spontaneous,

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