14th century

Article

January 24, 2022

The fourteenth century begins in the year 1301 and ends in the year 1400 inclusive.

Events

The fourteenth century is included in the historical period called the low Middle Ages. The Little Ice Age begins. In Europe, the century was characterized by the so-called crisis of the 14th century, which was a far-reaching phenomenon in European history and which lasted for several decades.

Europe

1302: Battle of the golden spurs: Flemish victory over the French army of Philip IV the Fair 1315: Battle of Morgarten, with the victory of the Swiss cantons over the Habsburgs of Austria 1346: Formation of the Serbian Empire, which marks the Serbian domination in the Balkans. 1355-1378: reign of Charles IV of Luxembourg (1316-1378), famous King of Bohemia (1346-1378): era of political and cultural splendor 1397-1523: Union of Kalmar: unification of the three Kingdoms (Sweden, Denmark, Norway), under a single ruler It is the era of the great Turkish-Mongol leader Tamerlane (now considered a sort of national hero of present-day Uzbekistan, his native land) A plague epidemic kills one third of the European population. Avignonese captivity: the crisis of the papacy begins, which will be accompanied by that of the Empire: the age called "prehumanism" or "golden autumn of the Middle Ages" begins Hundred Years War between France and England The legendary figure of the Swiss national hero William Tell is making a name for himself in Switzerland

Africa

1312: Empire of Mali: Emperor Mansa Musa is crowned (1312-1337)

Significant characters

Saint Catherine of Siena, (1347-1380) Tamerlane (Timur lenk) (Shakhrisiabz, 1336 - Otmer 1405), conqueror of the Persian, Ottoman, and India empires Cola di Rienzo (1313-1354), leader of Rome Marsilio da Padova (1275-1342), Italian jurist, among the greatest of the fourteenth century, author of the Defensor pacis (1324), on the origin of the Law Ni Zan (1300-1374), Chinese painter, the greatest of the Four Yuan Great Masters Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), Italian intellectuals John Wycliffe (1320-1384), famous British theologian Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1343-1400), writer, father of English literature, wrote The Canterbury Tales (c.1387) Philip the Handsome Pope Boniface VIII Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Italian poet, author of the Divine Comedy Giotto painter, inventor of the first form of perspective Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Templar order Jan Hus (c.1371-1415), Czech heresiarch and religious reformer, condemned and burned at the stake for his ideas, considered heretics Clement V, pope who moved the see to Avignon Robert of Anjou, held the throne of the kingdom of Naples, and examined Petrarch before the poetic degree in the Campidoglio Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1347 - 1402) Convenevole da Prato, notary and tutor of Latin Blessed Villana de 'Botti, penitent, born in Florence Stephen Uroš IV Dušan, Serbian emperor Saint Bridget of Sweden, Swedish religious and mystic (1303 - 1373)

Culture

Literature

Affirmation of 14th century Italian literature: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) and Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) 1303-1305: Dante Alighieri, father of the Italian language, with the treatise De vulgari eloquentia 1304-1321 Dante Alighieri composed the masterpiece of Italian literature: the Divine Comedy Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio respectively compose the Canzoniere (mid-14th) and the Decameron (between 1349 and 1351) Petrarchism and the phenomenon of imitation of the poetics of Francesco Petrarca, precursor of humanism Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1343-1400), father of English literature, author of The Canterbury Tales (c.1400)

Religion

John Wyclif (1320-1384) and Jan Hus (c.1371-1415) and the Hussites 1389: first documented news on the liquefaction of the blood of San Gennaro: miracle of San Gennaro

Philosophy

The important historiographical and philosophical contribution

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