nineteenth century


July 6, 2022

The 19th century is the century that begins in the year 1801 and ends in the year 1900 inclusive.


It is the first century of the contemporary age, a century of great social, political, cultural and economic transformations starting from the rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte and the subsequent Restoration, the revolutionary movements, the establishment of many modern states including the Kingdom of Italy and the Germanic Empire, the American Civil War, the second industrial revolution between positivism, evolutionism and decadence, imperialism and at the end the great depression and the Belle Époque.


1804: Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned emperor of the French at Notre Dame Cathedral. February 15, 1804: beginning of the first Serbian uprising, led by Karađorđe Petrović for the liberation from the Ottoman Empire, celebrated with the National Day of Serbia. October 21, 1805 - Battle of Trafalgar: decisive victory of the British forces over the French ones of Napoleon Bonaparte 2 December 1805: Napoleon Bonaparte achieves his greatest victory at the Battle of Austerlitz. 1805: Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned king of Italy in the Milan Cathedral. 1806: the independent Republic of Andorra is established by Napoleon Bonaparte. July 12, 1806: Napoleon Bonaparte incorporates Liechtenstein into the Confederation of the Rhine thus making it a sovereign state. 1806: the Gregorian calendar returns into force in France, after the suppression of the French revolutionary calendar in 1805, wanted by Napoleon 1807: Denmark: Battle of Copenhagen, between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Denmark and Norway; English victory September 17, 1809: the war in Finland ends, between the armies of the Russian empire and Sweden: victory of the Russian empire. May 17, 1814: the Constitution of Norway is signed at Eidsvoll. 1814: following the Treaty of Kiel, the Faroe Islands pass under Danish control. 1814: Napoleon's apogee and definitive defeat, the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) is called in 1814 with the intent of Restoration among the European domains. March 16, 1815: after Napoleon's defeat, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was born (until 1839). June 18, 1815 - Battle of Waterloo: final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte by the British and Prussian forces 1815 - Congress of Vienna: new order for Europe 1815: following the Congress of Vienna, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is created. 1816: the Kingdom of Illyria is established, a state of the Austrian empire with Ljubljana as its capital, which also included Venezia Giulia and Istria (it lasted until 1849). March 25, 1821: start date of the Greek uprising against the Ottoman Empire (Patras, Greece): today an event commemorated with the Celebration of the Greek Revolution of 1821 September 4, 1827: Great fire of Turku, the most serious in Finland and the Nordic countries Revolutionary riots in Berlin and Paris 1830: Belgium: Belgian Revolution against the United Kingdom of the Netherlands: Belgian victory and independence of Belgium (1830) July 21, 1831: King Leopold I is crowned the first king of Belgium: an event celebrated with the National Day of Belgium. 1832: the Greek War of Independence ends: after eleven years of war Greece is liberated after nearly four hundred years of Ottoman rule. April 19, 1839: the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg becomes independent from the Netherlands, following the Treaty of London between the Netherlands and Belgium. 1845-1849: Great famine in Ireland 1848: The Albertino Statute is drawn up in Italy (Turin, March 4) 1848: the first president of the French Republic is elected in Paris: Napoleon III of France. March 15, 1848 - Hungarian Revolution of 1848: heroic deeds of the Hungarian patriot Lajos Kossuth and the Hungarian national poet Sándor Petőfi. 1848-1849: Italy loses the first war of independence against Austria, Carlo Alberto abdicates. 1848-1849: Slovakia: Slovak uprising