The 18th century begins in the year 1701 and ends in the year 1800 inclusive.
In the first half of the century, a change in the political order of Europe took place with the wars of succession, which ended with the peace of Aachen in 1748.
In 1780 there was the first industrial revolution, James Watt invents the steam engine that revolutionized the industry: the prices of the products fell, improving the conditions of the poorer classes, while the artisans lost their jobs because their products were more expensive too. if unique. In the eighteenth century the French Revolution took place in France, which gave the final blow to monarchical absolutism and began the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, while the American war of independence took place in America. It is also called the century of enlightenment due to the birth and diffusion of the Enlightenment culture, of a rationalist mold.
1721: the Danish-Norwegian Protestant missionary Hans Egede colonizes Greenland and establishes its capital Godthåb (now Nuuk).
1754 - 1763: Franco-Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War.
1759: Battle of Québec, British victory
1775 - 1783: American Revolution
4 July 1776: the USA declares independence from Great Britain: birth of the United States of America: today remembered with Independence Day
January 18, 1778: discovery of the archipelago of Hawaii, by the English captain James Cook, during his third voyage to the Pacific, called by him the Sandwich Islands
July 24, 1783: Venezuela: Libertador Simón Bolívar is born: date celebrated with the Anniversary of the birth of Libertador Simón Bolívar
1785 - 1795: Northwest Indian War: US victory
1787: Constitution of the United States of America
August 23, 1791: Day of the beginning of the revolts in Santo Domingo, under the command of Toussaint Louverture, the first black general in history: the revolts paved the way for the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade: first victory of slaves against their own oppressors.
1700 - 1721: Great Northern War: Sweden loses almost all its possessions in the Baltic Sea
1701: the Kingdom of Prussia is created (1701-1918)
1701 - 1714: War of the Spanish Succession
3 August 1704: capture of Gibraltar: British conquest of the Gibraltar territory of which English Admiral George Rooke became governor
1733 - 1738: War of the Polish Succession
1740 - 1780: reign of Maria Theresa of Austria: era of political and cultural splendor in Austria (Teresian age)
1740 - 1748: War of the Austrian succession, which ended with the Peace of Aachen
November 1, 1755: Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755
1756 - 1763: Seven Years' War between the main European powers: Great Britain, Prussia, France, Austria, Russia, and later Spain.
1762 - 1796: Reign of Catherine II of Russia, known as the Great: a period of cultural splendor in Russia
1 October 1774: the Guardia di Finanza is established in Italy, initially constituted as a Legion of light troops, at the behest of Vittorio Amedeo III of Savoy, King of Sardinia
November 30, 1786: Grand Duchy of Tuscany: first state in Europe to abolish the death penalty (today the date is remembered with the Cities for Life day)
July 14, 1789 - Storming of the Bastille: a fundamental episode in French history considered the beginning of the French Revolution: today celebrated with the French National Day
August 26, 1789: France: the Declaration of the rights of man and citizen is issued, making France the homeland of human rights.
May 3, 1791: first constitution of Poland, the first European constitution
1791: the Declaration of the rights of women and of the citizen by the French writer Olympe de Gouges is published, in which the social and political equality of women is vindicated.
1792: Battle of Valmy: French victory against the forces of the First Coalition