Ainu

Article

August 8, 2022

The Ainu (Ainu: Ainu / Aynu, Russian: Айны) are an ethnic group that inhabited the area extending from Karafuto in the north, through the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula in the northeast, to Hokkaido, and to the north of Honshu in the south. is.

Overview

The Ainu have long had an economic zone in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk area. In other words, with furs and marine products obtained from their livelihoods, they acted as an intermediary in trade with the Lower Heilong River and Primorsky Province, and also traded with the Itelmen, an indigenous people of the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula. They also traded with Japanese people and obtained food such as rice, lacquerware, cotton and ironware. The Ainu were originally a hunter-gatherer race, did not have a written language, and traded by bartering. It has its own culture. Native language is Ainu. It has a culture that uses a lot of unique patterns, and it puts unique patterns on textiles and clothes (in the past, people also tattooed their bodies). The house (dwelling) ("chise" in Ainu language) is an architectural style called "dug-standing pillar building" (scholars after the Showa period). Currently, the Ainu are a minority ethnic group residing in Japan and Russia, and it is vaguely known that they live at least in Hokkaido and the Tokyo metropolitan area. I don't know the exact numbers. In 2007, the United Nations adopted the "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples", and there is a growing demand worldwide for consideration of indigenous peoples. In the following year, 2008, the plenary sessions of both the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors passed a resolution calling for the recognition of the Ainu as an indigenous people. . Furthermore, on April 19, 2019 (Heisei 31), the Japanese Diet enacted the "Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Realize a Society Where the Pride of the Ainu People is Respected."

Designation

Ainu

Ainu is a word that means "human" in the Ainu language, and originally meant "human" as a concept for "kamuy" (a name that refers to nature based on the spirit that everything in the natural world has a heart). It is said that there was It is not uncommon for ethnic groups around the world to perceive "human beings" from this perspective, which later became an ethnic name. It is said that this was consciously used as a ``name of one's own race'' for foreigners during the period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century, when the amount of trade between the Yamato race (Wajin, Sisam Shamo) and the Ainu increased. there is Wempe In Ainu society, the word "Ainu" was originally used only for people who behaved well. They didn't call their bad brethren Ainu, they called them Wenpe (bad guys). Regional difference The culture and group consciousness differ depending on the region. The Ainu who lived in the eastern part of the Pacific coast of Hokkaido called themselves ``Menasikuru,'' while the Ainu in the western part of the Pacific coast called themselves ``Shumkul'' (Shum means west), and the Ainu of the Kuril Islands called ``Kurumse.'' ” or “Route Munkuru”, etc., and called each other according to the area of ​​residence. name by era The Yamato race (Wajin) called the people living in the eastern and northern areas undeveloped from the perspective of the central government ``Ezo'' from the ancient Chinese name, and ``Dojin (at that time, it was purely ``local people'' at the end of the Edo period). ' and 'locals,' but it is said to have gradually come to be used with contempt after the Taisho period.) words that refer to