Hydrangea (hydrangea, scientific name: Hydrangea macrophylla) is a type of deciduous shrub of the genus Hydrangea in the family Hydrangeaceae. In a broad sense, the name "hydrangea" is also a general term for some plants of the genus Hydrangea. In a narrow sense, it is the Japanese name of one of the varieties, H. macrophylla f. Macrophylla, and this is sometimes called Hong Hydrangea to distinguish it from others. The original species is Gaku Hydrangea, which grows naturally in Japan.
Hydrangea in the narrow sense (Hydrangea) is a horticultural variety improved from the original species Hydrangea in Japan, and is a deciduous shrub close to Hydrangea. It blooms from June to July and has decorative flowers with large white, blue, purple or red calyxes. In Gaku Hydrangea, these are lined up so as to border the periphery of the inflorescence, and in horticulture it is called "forehead bloom". Hydrangea, which has changed from Gaku hydrangea and has spherical inflorescences and is all decorative flowers, is called "Temari bloom".
Cultivation is mainly carried out by cuttings during the rainy season. Widely cultivated for ornamental purposes in Japan, Europe, the United States, etc., many varieties have been produced. The place of origin is Japan, and the one with improved varieties in Europe is called Hydrangea vulgaris. Varieties of Amacha rarely grow naturally in the mountains, but most are cultivated in temples and the like. Although not used in Chinese medicine, it can be used as a medicinal plant in the private sector.
As will be described later, this species is a poisonous plant, so care must be taken when using it for horticulture or cut flowers. However, if you do not put it in your mouth, there is no poisoning effect. If you eat it, you will experience nausea and other symptoms.
Regarding hydrangea, Plants of the World Online (POWO), a database of the Kew Botanic Gardens, grows naturally in Japan and the volcanic archipelago as Hydrangea macrophylla, including the original species and varieties described later in #classification, and is brought to various countries and regions around the world. It is said that it is. The regional classification used by POWO is based on the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG), and the four-step classification method provided in 2001 for that purpose is 1 Although it is common to the second stage Asia-Temperate and the second stage Eastern Asia, the third stage is a separate division of Japan and the Kazan-retto. It is divided into.
The etymology of hydrangea is not clear, but in the oldest Japanese poetry collection "Manyoshu", "Ai Ajisa" and "Aji Sasai" are used, and in the Heian period dictionary "Wamyō Ruijushō", the characters "Azu Sasai" are used. It has been done. The most influential theory is that "Azusaai", which means "a collection of indigo", has become dull. In addition, Tanikawa Kotoseki's theory that "taste" indicates evaluation and "narrow indigo" indicates the color of flowers, Yamamoto Akio's theory that "collects and blooms" ("Manyo Kotosama"), "Atsusaki" There is a theory of Kaibara Ekken that it is a change.
Because the color of the flower changes often, it is also called "Seven Changes" or "Hachisenka". In addition, four 葩 (yohira) is another name preferred in haiku, and 葩 is a word for "petals".
The etymology of Gaku hydrangea is named after "frame hydrangea" because decorative flowers decorate the surroundings like a frame.
"Hydrangea", which is used in Japanese for Chinese characters, is a name given to another flower by the Tang dynasty poet Bai Juyi, probably Lilac, and is said to have spread by mistake because the scholar Minamoto no Shitagō in the Heian period applied this Chinese character. There is. Under the canopy, ".