November 28, 2021
الخلافة العباسية الاسلامية
Abbasid Caliphate (850)
The Abbasid dynasty (الدولة العباسية al-Dawla al-'Abbāsīya) was the second Islamic dynasty of the Islamic empire that ruled the Middle East (750-1258, replacing the Umayyad dynasty.
The caliphate was a descendant of Islamic founder Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abdul Muttarib, whose rule extended from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to Central Asia in the east at its peak. In the Abbasid dynasty, Arab privileges were denied, equal rights were granted to all Muslims, and the Islamic Golden Age was established.
The Abbasid dynasty prospered due to the development of east-west trade and agricultural irrigation, and the capital Baghdad became the largest city in the world before the Industrial Revolution. In addition, the roads and waterways connecting Baghdad and cities around the world have strengthened their function as trade routes, and have become a large commercial empire on the network that has never been seen in the history of the world.
In the Abbasid dynasty, based on the traditional culture of Egypt and Babylonia, the fusion of civilizations such as Arabia, Persia, Greece, India, and China made remarkable progress in scholarship and had a great impact on modern science. Gave. It can be said that Islamic civilization became the mother of later European civilization.
The Abbasid dynasty declined in the first half of the 10th century, and in 945 the Buyid dynasty lost its substantial power when it entered Baghdad, after which it remained only as a religious authority under the patronage of influential forces. rice field. It came under the patronage of the Seljuk dynasty, which destroyed the Buyid dynasty in 1055, but was destroyed by the Mongol Empire in 1258. However, the caliphate was protected by the Mamluk dynasty and survived until it was deposed by Selim I of the Ottoman Sultan in 1518.
The name Islamic Empire often refers to this dynasty in particular. The Umayyad dynasty is sometimes called the West Caliphate Empire, and the Abbasid dynasty is sometimes called the East Caliphate Empire.
At the end of the Umayyad dynasty, the Umayyad privatization of the Islamic sect was considered contrary to Allah's will in the Koran, and Shiites argued that the Muhammad clan graduates must be the leaders of the Islamic sect. The radical movement of the faction spread. This Shiite movement is a political movement in religious outerwear initiated by conquered peoples such as the Persians, and is still a major problem in the Middle East.
There were also other conflicts between Arabs and non-Arab Muslims such as converted Persians. In the Umayyad dynasty, non-Arab Muslims were called Mawali, and despite being Muslims, they were forced to pay Jizya (polling tax) and were not granted the same rights as Arabs. This discriminatory treatment was contrary to Islamic principles, and there was growing dissatisfaction among Persians and others.
Battle of the Zab River
In response to these dissatisfactions, anti-Umayyad troops uprised in 747 in the Khorasan region of eastern Iran. The anti-Umayyad army, consisting of dissident Arabs and Shiite non-Arab Muslims (Mawali) converted Persians, entered the central Iraqi city of Kufa in September 749 and entered Abu-al-Abbas (Saffah). Declared the establishment of a new dynasty with the first caliph. The following January, 750, the Abbasid army defeated the Umayyad army in the battle on the banks of the Zaab, and the Abbasid dynasty was built.