Amsterdam (Dutch: Amsterdam, pronunciation [ˌʔɑmstərˈdɑm] (voice file)) is the capital of the Netherlands. It is the municipality of North Holland (Hemainte) and the largest city in the Netherlands. It has a population of 820,654 (2012) and a population of 2,289,762 in the metropolitan area. It is one of the world's leading cities in Europe, where commerce and tourism are thriving. The place name means "Dam (embankment) of the Amstel River" (see "Dam Square").
Although it is the capital of the Netherlands as stipulated in the Constitution, most of the capital functions such as the Diet, central government offices, royal palaces, and embassies of each country are in The Hague.
Originally a small fishing village, a dam was built at the mouth of the Amstel River in the 13th century to build a town. In the 16th century, it developed into one of Europe's leading cities as a port city for shipping trade. Today, Amsterdam has a canal that stretches out in a mesh pattern around Amsterdam Central Station, the mansions of wealthy merchants of the non-Governor era along the canal, bicycles, women with window windows, Anne Frank House, etc. Widely known for.
Amsterdam has a shorter history than inland cities because it was built on land that was once landed by reclamation from what used to be the sea. It is estimated that reclamation began around the 11th century, but initially there were few residents for the purpose of agriculture and peat mining. In the latter half of the 13th century, it became a trading hub, place names began to appear in the literature, and the city developed rapidly.
Amsterdam was built as a fishing village in the 13th century. Legend has it that two hunters on a small boat with their dog landed on the banks of the Amstel River and built it. The name of the city comes from the fact that it dammed the Amstel River (Dam in de Amstel). On December 14, 1287, high waves from the North Sea flowed into the Zuiderzee, causing a great flood called the St. Lucia's Flood. As a result, the Zuiderzee expanded significantly and opened to the North Sea, and Amsterdam, the innermost part of the Zuiderzee, attracted attention as a point of contact between land and sea. It became a free city in 1300 (or 1301) and developed in the 14th century through trade with the Hanseatic League. Eventually, in the 15th century, it surpassed the Hanseatic League and became the center of Baltic trade.
In the 16th century, a rebellion against King Philip II of Spain and his successors, who ruled the 17 provinces of Nederland at that time, led to the Eighty Years War. During this time, Amsterdam was an independent group. When Antwerp in South Nederland surrendered to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Palma in Spain in August 1585, new scholars of Antwerp moved to Amsterdam one after another, and Amsterdam was only for the Baltic trade until then. Instead, it also gained trade from the Mediterranean, New World, and Asia, which was previously dominated by Antwerp, which made Amsterdam the center of global commerce and finance. The Dutch Republic, which gained independence, was religiously tolerant. Jews have fled Reconquista from Spain and Portugal, and wealthy merchants have entered from Antwerp. The Jews worked on diamonds in Amsterdam and Antwerp. Huguenots came from France in search of a safe haven. Rich and sophisticated immigrants from Flanders laid the foundations for the Dutch language and laid the foundations for the commercial development of the Netherlands. 1