The Arab League (Arab League, جامعة الدول العربية, Jāmi'a al-Duwal al-'Arabīya, League of Arab States) is the political regional cooperation organization of the Arab world. Founded March 22, 1945 at the end of World War II. The headquarters is in Cairo. There are 22 members (21 countries and 1 organization).
The current Secretary-General of the Federation is Ahmad Abulgate, a former Egyptian Foreign Minister.
The board of directors consisting of representatives of the participating countries is the highest decision-making body, and under it, the secretariat, the standing committee, the joint defense board, the socio-economic board, and other departments such as the Palestinian Affairs Headquarters and the Israeli Boycott Headquarters. And specialized institutions. The Board of Directors meets twice a year and may hold an emergency Board of Directors at the request of the two Member States or the Ordinary Board of Directors. Apart from the above organizations, the Arab Summit, which has been held since 1963, officially became the Arab League meeting in 2000. The summit meeting is held once a year in the cities of member countries. While the board of directors is composed of representatives from each country at the ministerial level, the importance of the summit is increasing because the heads of state of each country gather to hold discussions.
As the headquarters is in Cairo, and the seven secretary-generals of the past are all Egyptians except one Tunisian during the expulsion period of Egypt, Egypt has a strong initiative, and there is also opposition mainly in Saudi Arabia. It is also one of the reasons why Saudi Arabia was active in establishing the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. In March 1979, Egypt, which was the leader of the alliance, was expelled from the federation due to the sole peace between Egypt and Israel, and the headquarters was temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia. I returned to Cairo.
Initially, it was a federation established by seven Arab independent countries in 1945, but as the Arab countries became independent one after another, the number of member countries expanded, and Mauritania joined in 1973. Memberships such as Djibouti, Somalia, and Comoros, which were not previously considered Arab countries, were allowed.
Although the federation acted as one due to the conflict with Israel that broke out shortly after the establishment of the federation and the resulting Middle East wars, the force of the federation itself was small, and there were often turmoil and internal conflicts. Therefore, it is hard to say that the federation has such a strong political power. In recent years, the Arab League's political role has diminished, and virtually no effective measures have been taken to resolve political issues in the Middle East. In terms of regional integration, progress is being made in the movement toward integration in smaller areas such as the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Arab Maghreb Union.
It has been in a tense relationship with Israel since its founding, and has also imposed economic sanctions on Israel and its major customers, the "Israel Boycott," requiring Israel to accept the Arab Peace Initiative.
In the 20th century, the rise of Arab nationalism led to calls for the establishment of a regional cooperation organization among Arab nations. When World War II began, Britain's Anthony Eden began advocating this initiative on May 29, 1941, to prevent Arab countries from becoming Axis. Although it was not supported by the Arab countries at this time, Eden made a similar call again in February 1943, and the Arab countries actively supported it.