Referendum asking whether Britain should leave the European Union
In this article, I will explain the referendum (held in 2016) asking whether Britain should leave the European Union (English: United Kingdom European Union membership referendum). ..
A referendum was held in the United Kingdom on June 23, 2016 to determine whether the country should leave the European Union (EU) under the European Union Referendum Act 2015. Voting rights were given to voters in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar.
As a result of the ballot counting, the residual support was 16,141,241 votes (about 48%) and the withdrawal support was 17,410,742 votes (about 52%), which was a close victory on the withdrawal support side. The turnout was about 72%. In response to this result, Britain's withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit) was decided, and the United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union on January 31, 2020 at 11:00 pm (GMT) (February 1, 8:00 am Japan time).
Before the Maastricht Treaty came into effect
In 1946, Winston Churchill described his "United States of Europe" initiative, but Churchill himself stated that "Britain was not part of it."
In 1960, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was formed, led by the United Kingdom, which aims to gain initiative in Europe against the European Economic Community (EEC) consisting of France, West Germany and Italy.
In 1973, the United Kingdom decided to join the European Economic Community (EEC) under the Edward Heath administration. In the late 1970s, then British Chancellor Denis Healey realized that the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a German trap, and the British government decided not to join the ERM. In 1990, he joined ERM under the Margaret Thatcher administration. Thatcher himself was strongly opposed to joining ERM, but eventually admitted to joining ERM under the pressure of aides like later Prime Minister John Major. In June 1992, Denmark rejected the Maastricht Treaty in a referendum. In Britain, the Conservative Party is in a civil war due to a dispute over ratification of the Maastricht Treaty. George Soros launches a speculative attack against the Bank of England in the fall of 1992, and Britain experiences Black Wednesday. Immediately after, Britain left ERM. Soros's speculative attack was not aimed at saving Britain, but it eventually withdrew from ERM and prevented Britain from joining the common currency, the euro. In July 1993, Margaret Thatcher revolts in the Aristocratic House and demands a referendum on whether to ratify the Maastricht Treaty. Thatcher admitted that she had made a mistake in supporting the 1986 Single European Act, and was concerned that the Maastricht Treaty would partially transfer national rights to the EU. In 1994, after the Maastricht Treaty came into effect, James Goldsmith established the Referendum Party with the party policy of Brexit. Defend the 3% vote rate in the 1997 general election. In 1997, then Finance Minister Gordon Brown (later Prime Minister) announced five tests on the euro, blocking Britain's introduction of the euro. In 2002, Margaret Thatcher described the later EU as the greatest folly of our time and predicted that it would be a big political mistake for Britain to become part of its superpower. In 2004, then Prime Minister Tony Blair said he would hold a referendum to ratify the European Constitution, but declined to state a specific time. In 2008, the British government did not hold a referendum in Lisbon.