British police


January 18, 2022

This section describes the British police.


The era of Tonarigumi

In prehistoric times, security was maintained by tribes and families. In 1943, when the Roman conquest took place, the Roman province began to carry out police activities by Roman troops, but the traditional system continued outside its territory. In the 5th century, after the end of Britain due to the turmoil of the Roman Empire following the Germanic invasion, England began the seven kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon invasion and migration. In Anglo-Saxon, there was a principle that each person was responsible for action and peace in the region, and the neighborhood organization based on this was the basis of police activities. In other words, all free citizens are de facto police officers, and in the event of a crime, the inhabitants who are present are obliged to arrest and punish the criminal. The system that symbolizes this is Hue and cry, and the head of the neighboring organization must blow a horn and chase the criminal while yelling, and the surrounding residents also follow the command to chase. It was obligatory to join. Sanctions were imposed on residents who failed to cooperate. Even after the Norman conquest, the principle of police activity by these neighboring sheriffs was followed, but with the strengthening of the king's power, supervision by his deputy state magistrate (Shire-reeve, Sheriff) was strengthened. As a more modern police function, during the time of Richard I at the end of the 12th century, a justice of the peace appeared to select a local celebrity and delegate the investigation and punishment of criminals, and in 1328 under Edward III's rule. It was established as a system. During this period, unpaid officials, constables, who were engaged in law enforcement, also appeared, and have been under the control of justice of the peace since the 14th century. However, even at this time, the system of screaming tracking was still effective, and its command was one of Constable's missions. Constable was a one-year fixed-term position chosen by the local population, but was generally extremely unpopular, and later a representative paid by Constable took over the job. Due to such circumstances, social evaluation was generally low, allowances were low, and in many cases they did not have the knowledge and physical strength necessary for their duties. After the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the 17th century, Oliver Cromwell's Lord Protector era temporarily enforced a military police system, which made law enforcement much more efficient, but due to interference with traditional customs. It was extremely unpopular and was restored with the restoration of the royal government. After that, James II attempted to revive a police organization of the same kind, but there was still a great deal of opposition, which contributed to the defeat of the Glorious Revolution.

To modern police

Police organizations that relied on these communities gradually went bankrupt due to the urbanization that accompanied industrialization after the 18th century. For this reason, Henry Fielding, who was the judge in the Justice of the Peace Court in Bow Street, London, acknowledged the need for an investigative expert instead of the traditional unpaid, amateur constable. In 1749, six people were appointed from Seef Taker to form the Bow Street Runners. The corps became nationally famous for its extremely efficient operation and significantly reduced crime in the district, and is now the United Kingdom.

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