British Prime Minister

Article

May 21, 2022

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom. His honorific title is The Right Honorable. He has substantive administrative power in Britain.

Birth of the Prime Minister

The position of "Prime Minister" in the United Kingdom was not established with principles, but was formed as a de facto system, and its origin is because it is an official position approved by statute in the 20th century. There are many unclear aspects to. The first prime minister in Britain is generally considered to be Robert Walpole, who was the First Lord of the Treasury from 1721 to 1742 in the early Hanover dynasty. At that time, Walpole was a prominent member of the cabinet, and the King (George I and George II) no longer presided over the cabinet, so the practice of the First Lord of the Treasury presided over the cabinet was established in his time. This is because it is evaluated that the foundation of the parliamentary cabinet system, which conducts politics with the support of the parliament, was laid under this administration. In fact, Walpole's retirement was not due to the loss of the King's confidence, but to the fact that he had only a close majority in the 1741 British general election and was subsequently defeated in a convened parliament. From that time, Walpole was commonly called the "Prime Minister", but Walpole himself is called because it was a criticism of controlling other ministers without legal grounds. He said he hated. Even after Walpole retired, the person who took the position of Lord of the Treasury often presided over the Cabinet, so he was called the "Prime Minister", but if he was not the organizer of the Cabinet, he was the First Lord of the Treasury. Even if there is, it is not called the "prime minister". For example, William Pitt (Large Pitt), the first Count of Chatham, who is believed to have become prime minister between 1766 and 1768, leads the Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal of the King. At that time, the First Lord of the Treasury was Augustus FitzRoy, the 3rd Duke of Grafton, but it was the large pit that received the great order of the Cabinet, and it was the large pit that presided over the Cabinet, so the Prime Minister of this Cabinet It is said to be a large pit. It is said that when William Pitt (small pit), the son of the large pit, became the First Lord of the Treasury in 1783, the word "prime minister" was established as the term for "the chief of the peers" among the ministers. The minutes of the 1803 congress (Hansard) describe Henry Addington (later the first Viscount Sidmouth), who succeeded Pitt, as the First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of Finance in the opening ministerial list, but with parentheses behind it. It says "Prime Minister". In the three-time Cabinet of the 3rd Marquis of Salisbury, Robert Gascoyne-Cecile, the status of the First Lord of the Treasury was staffed by the first Earl of Iddes, Stafford Northcote, William Henry Smith, and Arthur Balfour, respectively. Due to the influence of this exceptional measure, in 1905, the seating order of the prime minister was set in the order of Miyanaka separately from the First Lord of the Treasury. At this time, the position of prime minister was officially recognized by the royal family. Nonetheless, the Prime Minister and the First Lord of the Treasury have not separated since the third Marquess of Salisbury Cabinet until 2016. The prime minister was stipulated by law in 1937, and until that year the word "prime minister" was not in the ministerial law. However, the diplomatic documents used the Prime Minister's words before this. In addition, due to the administrative reform on November 1, 1968, the nation