Egyptian history


July 5, 2022

This section describes the history of Egypt (History of Egypt, تاريخ مقر). The historical geographic space of Egypt is defined by the Nile, which runs through desert areas with little precipitation. People gathered in the Nile basin as the area around the Nile, which was originally grassland, became dry due to climate change. Most of Egypt's population in historical times was concentrated in a very narrow area on both banks of the Nile, with a small population in the surrounding oasis. The Nile River basin is divided into Lower Egypt, which is the northern part of the Nile Delta where the river branches and spreads like a fan, and Upper Egypt, where habitable areas on both banks of the river continue linearly. The geology of the Nile basin changed drastically upstream of the first steep river of the Nile in the south of Elephantine Island (Aswan) at the southern tip of Upper Egypt, forming a region called Nubia, which is different from Egypt. But Nubia is also the setting for the historical activities of the Egyptian population.


In the Nile basin, various cultures that sprouted ancient Egyptian civilization were born between the 5th millennium BC and the 4th millennium BC. At the end of the 4000 BC, the dynasty that unified Upper and Lower Egypt (First Dynasty of Egypt) was established, and until the conquest by the Roman Empire in 30 BC, the ancient Egyptian dynasty, which is classified into about 30, was centered on the deified king. I ran a nation. The king of ancient Egypt is commonly referred to as the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptian dynasty is broadly divided into the old kingdom (27th century BC-22nd century BC), the middle kingdom (21st century BC-18th century BC), and the new kingdom (16th century BC-11th century BC). The Great Pyramid of Giza, a symbolic building of Egyptian civilization, was built by King Khufu during the Old Kingdom, and the tomb of King Tutankhamen (Tutuan Kuamen), known for its golden mask, is a relic of the New Kingdom. .. After the collapse of the New Kingdom, several dynasties were built in Egypt by influxes from neighboring countries such as the Libya and Nubians. Eventually, in 671 BC, it came under the control of Assyria, which expanded its power in Mesopotamia, and after that, the Hakamanish dynasty (Achaemenid dynasty) and the empire of Alexander the Great ruled Egypt in sequence. In 305 BC, Ptolemaic I, one of the successors to the division of Alexander the Great's empire, built the Ptolemaic dynasty, and its capital, Alexandria, prospered as the center of learning in the eastern Mediterranean. Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BC when Cleopatra VII, the de facto last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was defeated by the Roman consul Octavianus (Augustus). Since then, for nearly 1000 years, Egypt has gone through its history as part of a larger empire. Egypt, which became a Roman territory, provided wealth centered on grain and supported Roman bread and circuses as the imperial province of Aeguptus. After that, the Roman Empire was permanently divided into multiple emperors, and after the last division of the Roman Empire in 395, Egypt came under the jurisdiction of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire is now commonly referred to as the Byzantine Empire. During this time, a new religion, Christianity, became widespread in Egypt and became the core of society. The temple of Isis on Philae Island was closed in 550, and the old gods of the ancient Egyptian civilization were forgotten. Egypt was conquered by the Sassanid Empire under Khosrow II in 618.