Estonia

Article

August 8, 2022

Republic of Estonia Eesti Vabariik National motto: None National Anthem: Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm (Estonian) My Homeland, My Pride and Joy The Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), commonly known as Estonia (Estonian: Eesti), is a republic in Northern Europe. The capital is Tallinn. It is the northernmost of the three Baltic states, bordering Latvia to the south and the Russian Federation to the east. It faces Finland across the Gulf of Finland to the north and Sweden to the west across the Baltic Sea. It regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It has a pro-Western policy by joining the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is also a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The currency is the euro. The population is about 1,326,000.

Overview

It is one of three countries along the Gulf of Finland, along with Finland and Russia, located about 90 kilometers south of Finland across the Gulf. It is also the northernmost country among the three Baltic states that line up north and south along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The country faces the Gulf of Finland to the north and the Baltic Sea to the west. It borders Latvia to the south and Russia to the east. The area is 1.23 times that of Japan's main island of Kyushu. The terrain is flat and the highest altitude is 318 meters. It is classified as a Northern European country by the United Nations. The capital, Tallinn, which flourished as a medieval Hanseatic city and is also a port city, is one of the major cities facing the Gulf of Finland, along with Helsinki, the capital of Finland, and St. Petersburg, Russia. In particular, traffic to and from Helsinki on the opposite bank, located 85 kilometers north, is brisk. Estonian is the official language and ranks high on the press freedom rankings. Many people speak multiple languages. In addition, it is the country that gave birth to Skype, and many foreign IT companies have entered the country, and software development is thriving. It is also known as one of the top countries in Europe for early IT education and international academic ability surveys. Since the 13th century, it has been ruled by Denmark, the Teutonic Order, Sweden, the Russian Empire, etc., and became independent from the Russian Empire in 1918 at the end of World War I. It was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 during World War II (occupied by the Baltic States), and in 1941 by Nazi Germany during the German-Soviet War. In 1944, it was reoccupied and annexed by the Soviet Union, which pushed back German forces. In 1991, it regained its independence in the process of the collapse of the Soviet Union, and in 2004, it joined the EU and NATO. In 2008, it became the headquarters of NATO's Cyber ​​Terrorism Defense Agency. The Estonian government considers the country to have been founded in 1918 and to have "restored" its independence from the Soviet occupation in 1991, so it is not a "former Soviet Union country".

E-Government / E-Nation

Estonia has built an "e-government" that utilizes IT for administration, and almost all administrative procedures are compatible with online applications, except for those intentionally excluded due to ethical factors such as marriage registration and divorce registration. . Estonian ministries, companies, and individuals register and use personal information in a basic information system called "X-Road." The ownership of personal information is stipulated by each individual, and access history to their own information can be viewed. More than 50,000 people have registered for the “E-Residency” system, which provides administrative services to foreigners overseas via the Internet. In addition to attracting investment, the system also aims to increase the number of people in the world who are friendly to Estonia and to strengthen deterrence against Russia. Preparing for war and disasters