Edward Jenner (May 17, 1749-January 26, 1823) is a British medical doctor. In the prevention of smallpox, he developed a safer vaccination method (cowpox inoculation method) than the previously used human vaccination method. He is also called the father of modern immunology.
He was originally a rural practitioner who was taught medicine under John Hunter.
Smallpox was often prevalent in England during this period. For vaccination against smallpox, Mary Montague, the wife of the ambassador to the Empire of Ottoman, learned about the variolation method (variolation method) in which a solution extracted from the pustules of smallpox patients is inoculated to healthy people in 1721. When he returned to Japan, he vaccinated his daughter with smallpox and spread it to the upper ranks of the United Kingdom. However, with this preventive method, 2% of those who received the vaccination became severe and died, which was dangerous.
When Jenner was active as a doctor, there was a farmer's saying that people who naturally get cowpox by milking and coming into contact with cows do not get smallpox after that. Compared to smallpox, cowpox was a safe disease with a much lower mortality rate. Jenner continued his research from 1778 to 18 years to see if this could be used to prevent smallpox, and on May 14, 1796, he inoculated cowpox to an eight-year-old boy named James Phipps, the son of Jenner's servant. .. The boy complained of some fever and discomfort, but only to that extent and had no serious symptoms. Six weeks later, Jenner inoculated the boy with smallpox, but the boy did not get smallpox, and the cowpox prophylaxis was successful. In some biographies and great men's biography, it may be described that "I tried it on my son" and "Phips is Jenner's real son", but I tried this cowpox inoculation 7 on my son. It was a smallpox inoculation a year ago, and it is said that it was confused with insufficient coverage of literature.
In 1798 he announced this, after which the vaccination law spread throughout Europe and he was awarded a prize by the British Parliament in 1802, but the medical community was reluctant to recognize this honor. Also, in some towns and villages, it was said that inoculating cowpox would make them cows, but it is said that they explained the inoculation as "the holy liquid of cows on which God rides." However, with the subsequent outbreak of smallpox, Jenner's vaccination method spread rapidly, and he became known as the "father of modern immunology." The smallpox vaccine was subsequently improved and used worldwide, and in 1980 the eradication of smallpox was declared. 1789 Selected as a Fellow of the Royal Society.
He has a deep knowledge of bird habits and is known for his research on cuckoo brood parasites and bird migration.
Japanese translation of the book
Edward Jenner, "Discovery of the Vaccination Law," translated by Yasuiti Nagano and Kiyoshi Saeki, Dainippon Publishing Co., Ltd. , 1944. doi: 10.11501 / 1078490. National Bibliographic Number: 47033834. NCID BA39033613. NDLJP: 1078490.
"Subsequent Observations on Cowpox" Translated by Masao Soegawa Modern Publishing 1981
Edward Jenner, "Study on the Causes and Actions of Cowpox," Toshiro Umeda, Commentary and Translation, Kodansha, March 1983. National Bibliographic Number: 83047207. ISBN 978-4-062-00553-1. NCID BN10866415.
Shizu Sakai "Edward Jenner's Study on the Causes and Actions of Cowpox" "Medical Library" Vol. 33, No. 2, Japan Medical Library Association, 1986, pp. 97-98, doi: 107142 / igakutoshokan.33.97, ISSN 0445 -2429, NAID 130002021881.
Imao Hirano "Father of Jenner Vaccination" Poplar Publishing