Carnation

Article

May 21, 2022

Carnation (English: carnation, scientific name: Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Dianthus in the family Dianthus. There are many other names in Japan such as dianthus dianthus, dianthus japonicus (musk carnation), and northern pink.

Origin and origin of name

Origin is said to be on the Mediterranean coast of Southern Europe and West Asia. There are various theories about the origin of the name carnation, such as the theory that it is a flower of the color of meat (Latin: carn), and the theory that it was used as a coronation flower in the time of William Shakespeare and was transposed.

History

Since it is native to the Mediterranean coast and West Asia, it has long been loved for its pretty flowers. In the Islamic world, it is a favorite plant along with roses and tulips. Since idol worship is prohibited in Islam, figures and animal expressions were avoided in decorations such as mosques, and arabesque geometric patterns and flower patterns were used. Carnation flowers are often used in this arabesque design. In the 17th century, more than 300 varieties were found in England and the Netherlands, cultivated by florist (horticultural enthusiasts), and made great progress. The variety increased throughout the 18th century, and eventually the "show carnation" was born, which became the mainstream of the 19th century. The characteristic of this flower is that the serrations on the edges of the petals are eliminated and the arrangement of the petals is closer to the geometric shaping, which is different from modern carnations. In this era, the breeding of roses was not so advanced, and carnations, auricula, and tulips were the cutting-edge horticultural plants of the era. In the middle of the 19th century, breeding progressed in France, and in 1840 Dalmes created the "Perpetual", and in 1857, the "Marmaison" was also born in France. These are connected to modern commercial carnations. The custom of giving carnations on Mother's Day began in the early 20th century when Ann Jarvis of the United States offered white carnations to his late mother. In 2013, the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (National Agriculture and Food Research Organization) Flower Research Institute and others announced that they had succeeded in decoding the genome of carnations. It is expected that it can be applied to the development of varieties that are resistant to conventional colors and diseases.

Cultivation

Father of cultivation and carnation in Japan

It was imported into Japan before the early Edo period and was called anjabel or anja (orchid: anjelier, tuinanjelier). The "Jinishiki Abstract" (1733), published during the Kyoho era, states that carnations were introduced from the Netherlands during the Shoho era during the Tokugawa Iemitsu era. However, at this time, it did not settle in Japan and was re-introduced during the Kanbun year, and 14 varieties were introduced. It is also recorded under the name of "Anshiyaberu" in "Flowerbed Tsuname" written at this time. In "Picture Book Noyamagusa" written in 1755 of the Horeki year, it is introduced together with dianthus and others. After that, when Sawada (unknown name) who lived in Seattle, USA in 1909 (Meiji 42) returned to Japan, "White Enchantres", "Pink Enchantres", "Victory", "Rose Pink Enchantres" I brought back a few other varieties, but I wasn't familiar with the cultivation method, so I couldn't put them into production. Later, Ryujiro Tsuchikura built modern cultivation techniques and systems, created new varieties, and established carnations in Japan.