Asteraceae

Article

May 21, 2022

The Asteraceae (Asteraceae, scientific name: Asteraceae, conserved name: Compositae) is a taxon belonging to the angiosperms Eudicots. It is considered to be the most evolved and most differentiated plant.

Features

Herbaceous (Sohon) or Kimoto (Mokuhon). The main morphological feature is that many small flowers (small flowers) such as chrysanthemums and dandelions gather, and that they look like a single flower. Such a flower shape is called a head-shaped inflorescence (tojokajo, abbreviated as head flower). In addition, the part of the base that looks like a calyx is called a total bract. There are two types of florets that make head-shaped inflorescences (head flowers): tubular flowers (tubular flowers) and tongue-shaped flowers. Hahacogusa has flowers only in the former, and dandelions consist only in the latter. In sunflower flowers, tongue-shaped flowers occupy the periphery and tubular flowers occupy the center. Usually, the flowers are classified into the subfamily Kiku, which has only tubular flowers or tongue-shaped flowers around it, and the subfamily Dandelion, which consists only of tongue-shaped flowers and contains milky lotion in the foliage. The subfamily Asteroideae may be further subdivided into several subfamilies. About 20,000 species of 950 genera are known in the world, and 360 species of about 70 genera are known in Japan, and they can grow in most parts of the earth. Therefore, there are many cultivated plants and naturalized plants in the Asteraceae family. Many plants of the Asteraceae family have antimutagenicity.

Classification

Classically, it was divided into the subfamily Asteroideae syn. Carduoideae and the subfamily Cichorioideae, but the latter was a lateral lineage and was divided into several subfamilies. It is classified into 12 subfamilies. However, 4 subfamilies include 99% of the species. In order from the primitive ones, they are as follows. Barnadesioideae-93 species in 9 genera, South America (mainly Andes) Stifftioideae-South America and Asia Mutisioideae Subfamily Mutisioideae-580 genera, 750 species, South America Wunderlichioideae ―― 24 species in 8 genera, mainly Venezuela and Guyana Gochnatioideae --4–5 genera 90 species Hecastocleidoideae-Hecastocleis shockleyi only, southwestern United States Carduoideae Carduoideae-83 genera 2500 species, worldwide Pertyoideae ―― 5–6 genera 70 species Gymnarrhenoideae --Gymnarrhena micrantha only, North Africa Cichorioideae Dandelion subfamily-224 genera, 3200 species, worldwide Corymbioideae --Corymbium 7 species only Asteroideae Asteroideae Subfamily ―― 1130 genera 16,200 species, worldwide

Subfamily Muticia

Only one station. Mutisieae-Gerbera, Mutisia, etc.

Carduoideae

It consists of 3 stations. Cirsium Cynareae-Cirsium Carduus, Knapweed Centaurea, Cirsium Cirsium, Cynareae Echinops, Echinops Echinops, Onopordum Echinops, Saussurea Dicomeae Tarchonantheae

Dandelion subfamily

It consists of 9 reams and 3 undecided reams. Arctotisae Cichorieae-Cichorium, Cichorieae, Crepis, Cichorieae, Hieracium, Hypochaeris, Lettuces, Lactuca, Sow thistles, Lapsan, Picris , Dandelion Taraxacum, Lettuces Youngia, etc. Eremothamneae Gorteriinae Gundelieae Liabeae Moquinieae Platycarpheae Ironweed Vernoniae --- Ironweed Vernonia, Cyanthillium, etc. Distephanus Heterolepis Trichospira

Subfamily Asteroideae

It consists of 21 stations. Anthemideae-Chrysanthemum Achillea, Anthemis, Artemisia, Chrysanthemum, Shu