Arisaema kishidae (scientific name: Arisaema kishidae) is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Araceae. Also known as Muro Mamushigusa.
The tip of the Buddhist bract is elongated and slanted or hangs slightly downward. Smaller strains have dioecious strains, and when the same one grows larger, it is dioecious and has dioecious or bisexual inflorescences, and is completely transsexual from male to female.
There is an oblate corm in the basement, and the roots come out from the upper part of the corm. The height of the plant will be 15-50 cm. The pseudostem is the same length as the petiole or slightly longer in the pseudostem. The leaves are usually one at two, the blades divide like a bird's foot, and the leaf axis between the leaflets develops. The leaflets are 5-7, the apical leaflets are obovate to oblong, the leaflets are 5.5-25 cm long, the edges are full or serrated, often with vitiligo along the midline, and the tips of the leaflets. It narrows and usually grows slightly like a tail.
The flowering season is April-May. Inflorescences and leaves develop at the same time. The inflorescence pattern is 4-9 cm in length, the inflorescence pattern of the male plant is longer than the petiole, and the inflorescence pattern of the female plant is often shorter than the petiole. Buddhist bracts are light purple-brown with fine shades, sometimes with fine purple spots, white striations and opaque to slightly translucent. Very rarely there are individuals with green Buddhist bracts. The Buddhist bract tube is 4-8 cm long, the mouth of the tube is narrowly open, and the Buddhist bract is triangular and long-ovate. It hangs slightly downward, and the side part is more than twice as long as the tube part. The inflorescence appendage is pedunculated and rod-shaped or club-shaped, and the tip is slightly thickened to a diameter of 3-6 mm and clearly protrudes from the bract side of the Buddhist bract. There are 4-10 ovules in one ovule. The fruits ripen red in late autumn. The number of chromosomes is 2n 28.
Distribution and growing environment
Endemic to Japan. It is distributed in Gifu, Aichi and Kinki regions of Honshu, and grows under the forest in the low mountains and at the forest edge.
Origin of the name
The Japanese name Arisaema kishida is a memorial to Matsuwaka Kishida (1888-1944), the older brother of the Western-style painter Ryusei Kishida, a pharmacist and a botanical collector. When Takenoshin Nakai (1917) described this species in Volume 31 of "Botanical Magazine", the type specimen collected by Matsuwaka Kishida in Mt. Murou, Nara Prefecture was used. However, Takenoshin Nakai initially took the Japanese name of this species as the collection site for type specimens and named it "Muroumamusigusa". Currently, "Muro Mamusigusa" is confused with Arisaema yamatense (Nakai) Nakai (1925), so it is said that it is avoided.
Kishidae is a dedication to Matsuwaka Kishida, the same as the Japanese name.
Closely related species
Arisaema tosaense Makino (1901), which belongs to the A. serratum group of the same genus Sect. Pistillata, has a distribution area adjacent to the western part of the Kinki region as a contact point. The tips of the serrata gradually narrow and grow into threads, and the leaflets are attached in a similar manner, but they can be distinguished by the different colors of the Buddhist bracts, inflorescence appendages, and inflorescence patterns, and the number of leaflets.
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Masahiro Kato and Atsushi Ebihara, "Indigenous Plants of Japan", 2011, Tokai University Press
Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Yuichi Kadota, Hiroshi Kihara et al., "Revised New Edition Japanese Wild Plants 1", 2015, Heibonsha
Written by Tomitaro Makino, edited by Jin Murata and Koji Yonekura, "New Classification Makino Japanese Botanical Encyclopedia", 2017, Hokuryukan
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