Treaty of Kiel


January 18, 2022

The Treaty of Kiel (Treaty of Kiel) is an international treaty signed between the Kingdom of Sweden and the United Kingdom of Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814. It was an opportunity for the formation of a personal union between Sweden and Norway. Kiel is a military port in northern Germany facing the Baltic Sea, but at that time the King of Denmark also served as the Duchy of Holstein, whose capital was Kiel.


Denmark, which had been participating in the Napoleonic Wars as the French side since 1807, allowed the Swedish army to invade the Jutland Peninsula in 1813, and as a result, the treaty was signed. As a result, Denmark transferred Norway to Sweden, and the Kingdom of Prussia took over Swedish Pomerania (former Duchy of Pomerania) on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in return (Pomerania). However, Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands, which were Norwegian territories, were left as Danish territory. However, the treaty was not actually implemented and Pomerania was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. In addition, Norwegian Viceroy Christian Frederick (later King Christian VIII of Denmark), who was informed of the conclusion of this treaty, rebelled. Norway declared independence on May 17, 1814, and Christian Frederick was elected king. However, Sweden did not recognize Norway's independence, and Prince Charles XIV led the army to succumb to the Norwegian army (Sweden-Norway War). Christian Frederick abandoned the throne and left the country, and the Convention of Moss was signed in August, and King Charles XIII of Sweden took the throne as King of Norway. From then on until 1905, Sweden and Norway became a personal union (Sweden Norway). This clause was also included in the Vienna Protocol (Congress of Vienna) and resulted in the concert of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.

External link

Full treaty French authentic, Swedish translation

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