Colombian Civil War

Article

November 28, 2021

The Colombian Civil War is a civil war that is occurring in Colombia. As a result of more than 50 years of civil war, violence and drug cultivation and trading were rampant, killing about 220,000 people, missing 45,000 and leaving about 7.4 million refugees.

Overview

Since Colombia became independent of Spain in 1819, parliamentary politics has been carried out by a two-party system of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. Rarely in Latin American countries, it rarely experiences a military coup or dictatorship, and while Colombia is described as "the oldest democracy in the Western Hemisphere," the gap between rich and poor since the colonial era is wide, other than the two major parties. As a result of the impediment of political participation by political forces, the soil for creating political and social violence was fostered. The civil war was repeated from the 19th century against the backdrop of the conflict between the two major political parties, and in 1899, the price of coffee beans plummeted and the rebellion of Liberal Party farmers broke out a civil war called the Thousand Days' War. The death toll is said to have reached 75,000 to 150,000 nationwide. The Liberal Party was based on emerging conglomerates and urban workers, and the Conservative Party was based on rulers such as landlords and Catholic churches, but both parties agreed to maintain an oligarchy. When Jorge Eliécer Geitan, a Liberal Party presidential candidate, was assassinated in the capital Bogotá in 1948, a riot broke out in Bogotá. The Conservative government thoroughly cracked down on Liberal Party supporters and entered a civil war called "La Violencia (era of violence)" for the next 10 years, killing 100,000 to 200,000 people. .. The civil war ended with a political agreement between the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party to split the government and elect a president from both parties every four years, but farmers and the poor who were excluded from the oligarchy were frustrated. Several left-wing guerrilla organizations led by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), which was founded mainly by Liberal Party farmers under the influence of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, overthrew the oppressive politics of landlords and capitalists. Armed struggles to try, and repeated kidnappings targeting wealthy people, corporate executives, civilians, and foreigners as a source of funds, accompanied by terrorist bombings targeting government agencies, security personnel, oil pipelines, etc. It also caused many casualties to the general public. Meanwhile, the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), a far-right militia formed against left-wing guerrillas, not only engages with left-wing guerrilla forces in collaboration with government forces, but also includes farmers who consider it related to guerrillas. Terrorist activities were carried out targeting the citizens as well.

Relationship with illegal drugs

In the Colombian domestic conflict, narcotics have been used as a source of funding for both right and left wing. In Colombia, the drug cartel Medellín Cartel has systematically promoted cocaine smuggling and cocaine smuggling since the 1970s, and in the 1980s drug-related profits surged, and drug organizations have a great influence on Colombian society. It became so. The Medellín Cartel rival Cali Cartel was supposed to influence the Colombian government, military and police, but the left-wing guerrilla organization's April 19th movement (M-) to maintain stronger force. 19) and came to form an alliance. The M-19 is an anti-government armed organization that incorporates not only the left but also the right, such as nationalists and socialists. I put on. However, the Colombian army, which received support from the U.S. government, launched a major offensive against the left-wing guerrilla forces from the 1980s.

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