November 28, 2021
The genus Primula (Primula, scientific name: Primula) is a group of plants belonging to the family Primula. Many of them have beautiful flowers and include many cultivated species.
All are perennials and have rhizomes underground. The leaves are rooted and may be round with a stalk, or the petiole may be indistinct and oval. The flower stalk extends from between the leaves and has inflorescences at the tips in a scattered or ring-like manner. The flower has five calyxes, from which tubular petals emerge, the tips of which expand and split into five. Five stamens are gathered in the petals. A notable point is the irregular style. This means that depending on the individual, the style (the part with the pistil) is shorter than the stamen and hidden in the flower tube, and conversely, the style is longer than the stamen and extends to the opening (self-owned). An example in P. vulgaris can be seen in the photo in the article on incompatibility (plants)). This is thought to be an adaptation that facilitates pollination between different styles and avoids inbreeding. In addition, at least in primroses (P. sieboldii), long style flowers are more self-compatible than short style flowers (that is, seeds can be easily produced even by self-pollination). However, in some cases, the atypia collapses and the pistil and stamen become the same height, and self-pollination is performed. In some cases this has reached the level of the whole species. Temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere-It is said that there are about 500 species and 600 species mainly in the boreal zone. Many of them have beautiful flowers, and many are cultivated for ornamental purposes. Those that have become horticultural plants in Europe are collectively called Primula. In Japan, primrose developed as a classical garden plant in the Edo period and has many varieties.
However, many of them were overfished for that reason. In the case of primroses, the development of the growing environment also has a great influence. Japanese primrose and primrose are also endangered by overfishing. On the other hand, the other species of Japan are mostly alpine plants, and their original habitat is limited, and they are regarded as valuable plants anyway.
The following species are known in Japan.
Primrose P. sieboldii E. Moor.
Primula Kisoana P. kisoana Miq.
Shikoku Primula var. Shikokiana Makino
Primula jesoana P. jesoana Miq.
Primula jesoana var. Pubescens (takeda) Takeda et Hara
Primula tosaensis Yatabe
Shinano Kozakura var. Brachycarpa (Hara) Ohwi
Koiwazakura P. reinii Franch. Et Savat.
Spider Ikozakura var. Kitadakensis (Hara) Ohwi
Myogiensis Hara var. Myogiensis Hara
Chichibuiwazakura var. Rhodtricha (Nakai et F. Maek.) Ohwi
Tesio Kozakura P. takedana Tatew.
Hidakana Miyabe et Kudo
Kamui Kozakura var. Kamuiana (Miyabe et Tatew.) Hara
Ezokozakura P. cuneifolia Ledeb. Var. Cuneifolia
Hakusanensis (Franch.) Makino
Michinokukozakura var. Heterodonta Makino
Primula nipponica P. nipponica Yatabe
Japanese primrose P. japonica A. Gray
Hepatica P. modesta Biddet et Moore
Yukiwarikozakura var. Fauriei (Franch.) Takeda
Leven Kozakura var. Matsumurae (Petitm.) Takeda
Yubarensis Takeda P. yuparensis Takeda
Sorachikozakura P. sorachiana Miyabe et Tatew.
Primula macrocarpa P. macrocarpa Maxim. The following are species produced overseas.
Primula Julie P. juliae
Primula malacoides --P. Malacoides-Originally from China, also known as Keshou-zakura and Otome-zakura.
Primula of Konica P. obconica --Originally from western China, also known as Tokiwazakura.