Jamaica

Article

August 8, 2022

Jamaica Jamaica National motto: Out of Many, One People National Anthem: Jamaica, Land We Love Jamaica (English: Jamaica English pronunciation: [dʒəˈmeɪkə] (audio file)) is a constitutional monarchy located in the Greater Antilles in Central America and the Caribbean, and one of the Commonwealth Kingdoms. It is an island nation, with Cuba and the Cayman Islands to the north, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola across the Jamaica Strait to the east. The capital is Kingston.

Overview

It is counted as one of the member states of the British Commonwealth of Nations in the Caribbean. It is also the country with the third largest number of English speakers in the Americas, after the United States and Canada.

Country Name

The official name is Jamaica (pronunciation in English is close to Jamaica if transcribed in katakana). The Japanese notation is Jamaica. The country is named after the indigenous Arawak word Xaymaka. This word means a land of trees and water or a land of springs. Initially, when it became a Spanish colony, it was spelled as Jamaica in Spanish, and later when it became a British colony, the spelling was not changed and only the reading was changed to English, and it came to be called Jamaica. . It is called Jameeka in Jamaican English and Jamieka, Jomieka, Jumieka in Jamaican Creole.

History

Arawak

Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Jamaica was inhabited by the Taino people of Arawak descent, who are believed to have migrated from the Guiana region of South America, and the Caribbean.

Spanish Period

Many Europeans visited Jamaica after Christopher Columbus "discovered" the Americas in 1492. In 1494 Columbus himself "discovered" Jamaica on his second voyage. In 1509, it became Spanish territory. The Spanish established sugar cane plantations in the area and brutally abused the Arawak, resulting in a significant decline in their numbers. Spain secured its labor force by importing black slaves from West Africa. However, in 1655, after an unsuccessful attempt to capture Hispaniola on the orders of Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell, Admiral Penn (father of William Penn, who founded the state of Pennsylvania in the United States) and General Venables led the remaining forces. He invaded Jamaica and occupied the island almost bloodlessly.

British rule

In 1670, it became a British colony under the Treaty of Madrid. Britain made the port town of Port Royal its capital, and Jamaica was the headquarters of the Royal Navy and became the home port for pirates and privateers. The capital was moved north to Kingston after the town was destroyed in a major earthquake in 1692. Furthermore, Britain strengthened its influence in the Caribbean Sea from Jamaica, and the Miskito Kingdom, the Mosquito Coast (currently Nicaragua and Honduras), and British Honduras (currently Belize) became British territory under pressure from Jamaica. It was for Black slaves and runaway blacks (Jamaican Maroons) insurrection (1st Maroon War 1731, 2nd Maroon War 1795) continued for a long time, and the Coromanti (black slaves of the Akan tribe) revolted in Tuckee. (1760), etc. occurred, and during the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), Toussaint Louverture's jama