Siege of Szigetvar

Article

August 8, 2022

The Siege of Sigetvar (Hungarian: Szigetvár ostroma, [ˈsiɡɛtvɑ̈ːr ˌoʃtromɒ], Sigetvar Ostroma, Croatian: Bitka kod Sigeta; is a battle (August 5, 1566 - September 8, 1566) in which the Habsburg Empire ruled Szygetvar, Szygetvar County, Hungary Kingdom, and fought against the Hungarian Royal Army. The castle's garrison was commanded by Nikola Šubić Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi Miklós [ˈzriːɲi ˌmikloːʃ] Zrínyi Miklós [ˈzriːɲi ˌmikloːʃ]), who had been appointed to the former Ban of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia by King Ferdinand I of Hungary. ), the Ottoman army was led by Sultan Suleiman I. The siege of August–September 1566 resulted in the Ottoman victory and the capture of Siggetvar, but resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. At the end of the battle, Suleiman I died, and Nikola Šubić Zrinski was also killed. 20,000 Ottomans were killed, while the 2,300 garrison were almost wiped out. Of the latter, about 600 survived until the final day's all-out assault. Massive casualties and the death of the Sultan forced the Ottomans to withdraw later that year, and the Second Siege of Vienna in 1683 did not threaten Vienna from the Ottomans. In the first half of the 17th century, France's Chancellor Richelieu described the Siege of Szigetvar as "a battle in which civilization (in the West) was saved". Even today, Hungary and Croatia continue to tell stories of this battle in their own poems and operas. The choral song "U Boi, U Boi" is a Croatian patriotic anthem about Zrinski in this battle.

Background

At the Battle of Mohacs on 29 August 1526, the Hungarian army under Lajos II was defeated by the Ottoman army under Suleiman I. After Lajos II died without an heir, Hungary lost its independence and was contested by the Habsburgs and the Ottomans, along with Croatia, which was the territory of the Hungarian king. The Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor, younger brother of the then Emperor Charles V) was married to Lajos II's older sister and was elected king by the Hungarian and Croatian nobles respectively. It was decided. On 1 January 1527, the Croatian nobles assembled at Setyn Castle and unanimously elected Ferdinand as king of Croatia, confirming that his heir would succeed to the throne. In return, Ferdinand promised to protect Croatia from Ottoman invasion, respecting the historical rights, liberties, laws and customs that Croatia had had since its union with Hungary (Setin parliament). Meanwhile, in eastern Hungary, the great lord of Transylvania, Sapojay Janos, proclaimed himself king of Hungary and clashed with Ferdinand. Sapojay Janos was granted rule over all Hungary by Suleiman I. In 1527, Ferdinand launched a campaign in Hungary, capturing the Hungarian capital Buda from Sappojay Janos. In 1529, however, it was attacked by the Ottoman Empire and lost all the territories it had acquired in 1527-28. Reverse