Plum

Article

July 5, 2022

Plum (Li, vinegar peach, scientific name: Prunus salicina) is a deciduous small tree of the genus Plum of the Rosaceae family. Also, the fruit.

Overview

The Japanese name comes from the fact that the fruits of plums have a stronger acidity than peaches. Also written as "Li" in Chinese characters. In English, it is called "Asian plum", "Japanese plum" (Japanese plum), etc. (However, plums are sometimes called "plums"). Depending on the area, it is also called Hadankyo or Hatankyo, but it is a different species from almonds, which are also called Badankyo. The place of origin is China. He came to Japan from China for a long time and is also written in Japanese poems. In addition to being cultivated on farms as fruit trees, some grow naturally. Plums that went to the United States in the 19th century were improved by breeder Luther Burbank as varieties such as "Soldam," "Santa Rosa," and "Beauty," and were imported back into Japan as "plums." Based on these, in Japan, it was developed into "Hayao Oishi" and "Moonlight".

Features

A small deciduous broad-leaved tree. It is a different species from peach, and can be artificially pollinated using the pollen of plums, apricots, and peaches of the same Rosaceae genus Plum. The branches are well-branched and spread laterally. The leaves are oblong or lanceolate. The flowering period is April. In China, it is a typical spring flower along with peaches. Make 1-3 white flowers bloom at the base of the leaves. The fruits are hairless and ripen from green to red in the summer. The flesh is red or yellow and has a sour taste, but when fully ripe, it becomes sweet.

Cultivation

If it hits frost during the flowering period, it will become incomplete flowers and will not bear fruit, so areas that do not encounter late frost during the flowering period are suitable. Since long fruit branches are difficult to bear fruit even if they bloom, pruning to produce medium and short fruit branches and bouquet-like short fruit branches is performed in winter. It is thought that the reason why the yield is low even though it is an adult tree is that the pollinated tree is not nearby, it is incompatible with the pollinated tree, and it is exposed to low temperature late frost. Spray lime sulfur before germination to prevent swelling of leaves and fruits. Aphids, aphids, scale insects, monema flavescens, etc. are attached. From 2014 (2010), it has been designated as a plant subject to emergency control of plum pox virus (plum pox virus), and it is prohibited to take out seeds and fruits from designated areas. In 2019 (the first year of Reiwa), a pest insect, Sumomomihabachi, which ingests young fruits and damages the inside, was confirmed. The insect is presumed to have invaded from mainland China and only harms plums. Damaged fruits fall at about 1 cm, and there are many cases where no harvest is achieved without control, so care must be taken to expand the distribution.

Harvest

Yield Yield by prefecture (2013) National yield 21,800t Yamanashi prefecture 7,450t (34.17%) Wakayama Prefecture 2,940t (13.48%) Nagano Prefecture 2,810t (12.89%) Yamagata Prefecture 1,560t (7.16%) Aomori Prefecture 998t (4.58%) Main production areas in Japan (according to the long-term list of data by municipality survey) Hokkaido Niki Town Aomori Prefecture Nambu Town (formerly Nakawa Town), Sannohe Town Miyagi Prefecture Zao Town Yamagata Prefecture Nakayama Town, Tendo City, Higashine City Fukushima Prefecture Kunimi Town, Date City (former Hobara Town, former Yanagawa Town, former Ryozen Town) Gunma Prefecture Haruna Town Yamanashi Prefecture ... No. 1 in Japan. In particular, Minami-Alps boasts the highest production volume in Japan as a local government. Minami Alps City (former Shirane Town, former Kushigata Town, former Konishi Town, former Hatta Village), Koshu City (former Shioyama City), Kofu City (former Nakamichi Town), Fuefuki City (former Sakaigawa Village), Yamanashi City, Fujikawa Town (Former Masuho Town), Chuo City (formerly Abundant Village) Nagano Prefecture ... 2nd-3rd in Japan. Nagano City, Suzaka City, Nakano City, Saku City.