November 28, 2021
Soviet Union of Socialist Republics
Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
National slogan: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Государственный гимн СССР》 (Modified version) (1977–1991) Soviet Union territory after 1945 (including effective territory)
Soviet Union (Soviet Union, Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик pronunciation, acronym: СССР, Latin transcription: Soyúz Sovét Union (English acronym: USSR) is a one-party socialist federal republic of the Soviet Union Communist Party that advocated Marx-Leninism that existed between December 30, 1922 and December 26, 1991. , A republic on the Eurasian continent (see the following section for names). The Federal Republic was formed by several constituent republics. The capital is Moscow. The vast land area of 22.4 million square kilometers is comparable to the total area of all countries in South America and Southeast Asia. From the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War (1989), it was a superpower along with the United States.
Founded from the Russian Revolution
The Soviet Union originated in the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks, the majority of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, overthrew the caretaker government established by the February Revolution and established the Russian Soviet Union (renamed the Russian Soviet Union Socialist Republic in 1936). Beginning with the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War began between the Revolutionary Red Army and the Counter-Revolutionary White Army. The Red Army invaded several former Russian Empire territories and helped local Communists seize power through the Soviet Union of workers and peasants.
The Communists won in 1922, and the Soviet Union was formed by unifying the republics such as Russia, Zakafkas, Ukraine, and White Russia (now Belarus).
Vladimir Lenin died in 1924, causing group leadership and short-term power struggles with Troika.
Then, in the mid-1920s, Joseph Stalin came to power. Stalin promoted the planned economy by using the Marxism-Leninism he created as a national idealism. As a result, the country has achieved rapid industrialization and collective farming.
He carried out a genocide on his own people, which is said to be the Great Purge.
In 1929, the Savings Secretariat, a national financial institution, came under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance. The amount of deposits of the people and the five-year plan became complementary to each other.
World War II
Before the outbreak of World War II, when Britain and France refused to ally with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany led by Adolf Hitler of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, the Soviet Union became a German-Soviet non-invasion treaty with Germany. signed. The treaty brought a fleeting honeymoon between the two countries and surprised many, but in 1941 the German army launched Operation Barbarossa and the German-Soviet war began. In defense battles such as the Battle of Leningrad and the Battle of Stalingrad, huge sacrifices were made and Soviet war casualties.