Takane violet (scientific name: Viola crassa subsp. crassa) is a perennial plant belonging to the Viola family. Also known as Takanekisumire. In the narrow sense, 4 subspecies are recognized.
The rhizome is short, creeping, and the internodes are very short. Forms a large colony on gravel ground as it may proliferate through underground stolons. It is a stemmed species, and the ground stem is bright green. In its own habitat, it is often buried in sand and gravel, so it looks low, but the ground stem is long. Height is 5-12cm. A few basal leaves are present during the flowering stage, and the blades of the basal leaves and stem leaves are 1-2.5 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, heart-shaped, with a rounded tip and a deep heart-shaped base. It becomes and continues to the petiole of 3-5cm in length. The leaves are thick and glossy, with low wavy serrations on the edges, dark green surface sometimes tinged with reddish brown, conspicuous veins, curling on the surface side, and short hairs on the base and petiole of the leaf blade. grow. The stipules are free along both sides of the stem, ovate, 3-4 mm long, with slightly blunt tips and entire or slightly serrated margins.
The flowering season is from June to August. The peduncle is 2-5cm long from the leaf axil on the upper part of the stem and has yellow flowers. There are two linear bractlets in the middle of the peduncle. The flower diameter is 1.5-2 cm, the petals are 10-12 mm long, the upper and lateral petals are reflexed, the lateral petals have no hair at the base, the lip is larger than the other petals, and has brown striations at the tip. become sharp. The spur of the labial petal is thick and short, up to 1 mm in length, and forms a sac. The sepals are broadly elliptical, apex obtuse, and have few appendages. There are five stamens, the style is Y-shaped, the top of the style is divided into two, and the stigma has protruding hairs. The fruit is an oblong capsule with no hairs. Chromosome number is 2n48.
Distribution and Habitat
There is also literature that it is distributed in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, but Koji Yonekura (2017) states in YList that ``reports from North Korea (W.T.Lee, Lineam. Fl. Kor. 1: 722 (1996)) are being considered. There is a need for Viola crassa is known not only from the Korean Peninsula, but also from Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands, and the Kamchatka Peninsula, but the relationship between the four subspecies, including this subspecies distributed in Japan, is unknown.
There are documents that describe it as an endemic species of Japan, and it is distributed in Mt. Akita-Komagatake, Mt. Iwate, Mt. Yakushi and Mt. The type specimen was collected from Mount Iwate.
Origin of name
The Japanese name Takane Sumire means "Takamine Sumire", meaning the violet that grows in high mountains.
The species name (species epithet) crassa means "thick" and "succulent".
Species Conservation Status Assessment
Near Threatened (NT) (Ministry of the Environment Red List)
Viola crassa (broad definition) (Ministry of the Environment, 2020)
In addition to the basic subspecies subsp. crassa, the following three subspecies are recognized.
Ezo Takane Violet
Ezotaka Nesumire (Ezo Takane Sumire) Viola crassa Makino subsp. borealis Hid.Takah. (1974) - The leaves are dark green, dull and hairless. The flowering season is from late June to July. It lacks the style hairs found in the basic subspecies. Chromosome number is 2n48. It is distributed in Hokkaido's Daisetsuzan, Yubari Mountains, Hidaka Mountains, and Mt. The type specimen was collected from Daisetsuzan. In the serpentinite area of the Yubari Mountains, there are plants that are small in size and have purple undersides and stems. The subspecies name borealis means "northern" or "northern".
Alpicola Hid.Takah. Viola crassa Makino subsp. alpicola Hid.Takah. (1974) - Leaves dark green, slightly brownish, glossy, glabrous. The flowering season is from mid-June to July. The upper part of the style is T-shaped and has no style hairs. The underside of the petals is reddish-purple, and the lip petals are lighter than the other petals.