The Tungusic peoples (Russian: Тунгус; Tungus, English: Tungusic peoples, Chinese: 贴罗; Tōnggŭsī) live in Northeast Asia, from Manchuria to Siberia and the Far East, and speak languages belonging to the Tungusic language family. Ethnic groups that speak their mother tongue.
Since the Tungusic languages are roughly divided into northern and southern subgroups according to their dialects, each ethnic group is also roughly divided into north and south.
Evenk language group
Solon tribe of Evenki (Solon language)
Kiri speaking group
Orochi-Udehe language group
Orochi (Orochi language)
Manchu people (using Manchu language and Manchu characters, Later Jin → Qing Manchukuo founded)
Sibe tribe (using the Sibe script, which is an improved version of the Sibe language and Manchu script)
Nanai language group
Nanai (Nanai language)
Urichi (Urichi language used. In the past, it was responsible for the Shandan trade.)
Uilta (Speaks Uilta language. Lived in the basin of the Horonai River and Romou River on the east bank of Karafuto. It was once called Orokko.)
The name "Tungus" comes from the fact that the Yakuts of Russia called the Evenki with whom they were interbreeding "Toŋus". Currently, both of them call themselves ethnic names, so "Tungus" is used as a general term for the Tungusic language, which is a language system name, and the peoples who speak it.
There have been several theories about the origin and meaning of the Yakut word "Toŋus", but there is no established theory yet. Here are some famous theories:
The pronunciation of the Yakut language "Toŋus" is similar to the Northeast Asian ethnic group "Dōnghú" reported in Chinese history books, so it was supported mainly by European scholars.
pig breeder theory
Advocated by J. Klaproth. The Yakut word 'Toŋus' is a Turkic loanword meaning 'pig', and it is said that it referred to Mukchi and Mukichi who were good at raising pigs.
Although no established theory has been established yet, there are the following hypotheses.
Southern origin theory
Since its introduction in the 19th century, many scholars have attributed the nomadic Tungus of Siberia to the Mongols who migrated northward along the Heilong River, due to the closeness of the Tungusic language to Mongolian and Turkic languages. In the 1920s, Shirokogorov, a Soviet (Russian) scholar, announced a theory based on field research, etc. that the Songhua River and Ussuri River basin areas were the land where the Tungus people were formed, and that the origins before formation were in the northeastern part of Hebei. Although it is supported by many scholars from the viewpoints of linguistics and anthropology, it is said that the fact that it originated in the northeastern part of China has little archaeological support and is beyond the realm of hypothesis.
theory of western origin
Two Soviet (Russian) scholars hypothesized that they came from around the shores of the Selenga River and Lake Baikal.
ancient indigenous theory
In the 1960s, Soviet scholars hypothesized that the island had been isolated from the outside world for thousands of years due to its cultural identity. It is not the main stream because of the fact that archaeological finds of old age that are similar to those in the southern region are found, and the fact that the increase in excavated objects that are thought to be due to the increase in population during the period of rapid cooling has been confirmed. not
The Tungusic peoples are divided into several groups according to their customs.
Reindeer Tungus: A Tungus that makes a living by breeding deer.