Tulunids

Article

November 28, 2021

Tulunids Borders of the modern Arab world and Tulunid prints The Tulunids (Arabic: الיولونيون) were the first independent dynasties in Islamic Egypt and Bilad al-Sham (Syria). It maintained its independence from 868 to 905, but was defeated by the Abbasid Caliphate government, the central government of Islam, and its territory was reclaimed. In the second half of the 9th century, the Abbasid civil war relaxed control of the empire's marginal areas, and in 868 the "Turkic" general Ahmad bun Toulun established his own independence in Egypt. He was then nominally granted autonomy by the Abbasid central government. During his reign (868-884) and during the reign of his successors, the Tulunid forces spread to the Jordan Rift Valley, as well as to the Higers, Cyprus and Crete. Ahmad's status was inherited by his son Khumarawayh. He has emerged as a key military and diplomatic person in the Middle East. The Abbasids acknowledged that the Tulunids were legal rulers, but at the same time admitted that they were under the suzerainty of the Abbasids. The Amirs after the Khumarawayh were powerless, allowing Central Asian and black slave soldiers to influence national affairs. In 905, the Tulunids were unable to resist the Abbasids, and the direct control of the caliphs over Egypt and Syria was restored. The Tulunid era was an era of economic, administrative and cultural restructuring. Ahmad Bun Toorun has changed the tax system and is in line with the merchant community. He also established an army of the Tulunids. The capital was moved from Fustat to Al-Qata'i. The Ibn-Tourun Mosque was built in Al-Qata'i.

History

The rise and fall of the Tulunids was an event that took place against the backdrop of increasing regionalism in the Islamic world. The Abbasids suffered from political turmoil and the loss of universal religious legitimacy. Although not temporary or regional, there was already a movement in Egypt by Coptic Christians and Aliid Abbey Tarrib followers (Alids). There was also a struggle between Central Asian military commanders and the rule of Baghdad. In addition, the empire's financial crisis was widespread. All of these problems were repeated during the rule of the Tulunids. The Abbasid dynasty has become unstable, and Abu Ahmad (Bun al-Mutawakkil) al-Muwaffaq (died in 891), who had been exiled to Mecca, regains control of the Abbasid dynasty over southern Iraq in 870. Summoned for. But soon he became the de facto ruler of the Abbasid dynasty. As a result of this turmoil, Ahmad Bun Tulunid succeeded in establishing and expanding his control and establishing the Tulunids. This administration was able to exercise regional control with little hindrance by the will of the Abbasid central government. Such Tulunid domination can be compared to the dynasties of the 9th century Islamic world, such as the Aghlabids and Tahirids.

Ahmad Bun Toorun

Ahmad Bun Toorun was initially organized in Baghdad

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