January 18, 2022

"Tosca" is Giacomo Puccini's opera based on Victorien Sardou's play. Due to its many highlights, it is regarded as an important work in the history of opera.

Creation and performance of the work

The script was written by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa in all three acts. The premiere took place on January 14, 1900 at the Costanzi Theater in Rome. The opera script is based on the play by Victorien Sardou, which was performed in Paris in 1889. Puccini was exposed to the play by Sarah Bernhardt in Milan that same year and immediately asked his familiar editor Giulio Ricordi to buy the rights from Sardu, but in 1893 it belonged to the composer Alberto Franchetti. Ilrika wrote the script, and in October 1894 Franchetti, Ricordi and Verdi met Sardu and presented the script. Verdi was fascinated by this tragic work, but he didn't intend to compose it unless he changed the ending of the work. A few months later, Franketti gave up on his own work and Ricordi asked Puccini to compose. He was offended by him and succeeded in accepting it through Verdi's mediation. Puccini began composing in 1896 after finishing the composition of "La Boheme". Ricordi assigned Giacosa to Illica's co-author to write the script. However, Giacosa didn't like this work, so he couldn't show his verse, which he was good at, and caused several controversies with Sardu. Puccini also shortened the "Latin chant" that they tried to incorporate into Act 3 to a duet of only 18 bars, "The soul is proud of the new hope," after discussions involving the two script writers up to Ricordi. I did. After three years of difficult collaboration, the work was completed in October 1899. Since the work is set in Rome, the premiere will be held at the Costanzi Theater in the city. The preparation was long-term and attracted the curiosity of those around him. Hariclea Darclé (soprano) sang Tosca, Emilio de Marchi (tenor) sang Cavaladossi, and Eugenio Girardoni (baritone) sang Skullpia. In addition, Leopoldo Mugonne was the general director. In addition to Queen Margherita and Prime Minister Perot, a number of composers such as Pietro Mascagni, Francesco Cilea, Francesco and Zugamberti joined the audience. Despite the surprisingly different tastes of Tosca and its predecessor, La Boheme, the performance was a complete success. Although critics did not appreciate it, the audience enthusiastically accepted it.

Musical instrument organization

Flute 3 (replacement of 2nd and 3rd player Piccolo), oboe 2, kolangre, clarinet 2, bass clarinet, bassoon 2, bassoon, horn 4, trumpet 3, trombone 3, bass trombone, tympani, small drum , Triangle, Cymbal, Trombone, Oboe, Glockenspiel, Celesta, Bell, Harp, Bassoon Flute, viola, harp, horn 4, trombone 3, bell, organ, snare drum 2, rifle, cannon on stage

Playing time

1 hour and 50 minutes (Act 1 45 minutes, Act 2 40 minutes, Act 3 25 minutes)

Contents of the work

The painter Kavaladossi and his

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