The Napoleonic Wars (Napoleonic Wars, French: Guerres napoléoniennes, English: Napoleonic Wars, German: Napoleonische Kriege) is a general term for a series of wars (1799-1815) during the First and First Empires of France. Since November 9, 1799, when Napoleon Bonaparte took office as the first governor, it can be divided into two phases: the "French Revolutionary War" and the "Napoleonic War". It may also include the first Italian and Egyptian expeditions under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte under the Governor's Government.
The Napoleonic Wars began in a period of turmoil after the French Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon, who led the French army, conquered most of Europe for a period of time, but was defeated in the Spanish Independence War and the Russian expedition, and suffered a decisive defeat in the Battle of Waterloo. With the conclusion of the Second Treaty of Paris on November 20, 1815, the war ended and Napoleon was ousted.
Since the French Revolutionary War, which started in 1792, has been in a state of war intermittently, the series of wars is collectively called the Great French War. In Germany, the War of the First Coalition against France (Koalitionskriege) and the battle for the liberation of Germany after 1813 are also called the German Campaign of 1813. There is also a view that the conflict between Britain and France, which has continued for more than 100 years since the Nine Years' War, is regarded as the Second Hundred Years War.
As for where to divide the French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic War, it is common to see the abolition of the Treaty of Amiens in May 1803 as a boundary, but there is another view by Napoleon in March 1796. There is a view that the start of the first Italian expedition is the boundary, and a view that the coup d'etat of Brumer in November 1799 is the boundary. This section describes the campaign after March 1796, which is in the middle of the Revolutionary War.
In addition to the continent of Europe, colonies around the world became battlefields during the Napoleonic Wars. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the second "World War" following the Seven Years' War.
All European nations were more or less involved in the Napoleonic Wars. Due to the repeated declarations of war and peace in the Napoleonic Wars, the participating nations are replaced on the way, except that France and Britain have been in a consistent conflict. Some countries have changed their position from an ally on the French side to a large alliance with France, or vice versa.
The French Empire, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Spain, the Confederation of the Rhine (Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Saxony, etc.), the Kingdom of Naples, the Netherlands (Republic of Batavia, Holland), which almost consistently participated in the war on the French side. Kingdom), Switzerland (Republic of Helvetia) The British Empire, Austria (Habsburg Monarchy), Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Portugal, Ottoman Empire, Sardinha Kingdom, Empire
Mobilization / Organization
Prior to the Napoleonic Wars, European absolutists had a mercenary-based army. After the French Revolution, the French army was transformed into a national army consisting of ordinary people who were conscious of defending the republic that was the result of the revolution. At the end of the 18th century, France was the second largest population block in Europe after Russia, which was advantageous in implementing the conscription system. However, in the process of the Napoleonic Wars, Germany was defeated.