New Orleans

Article

November 28, 2021

New Orleans (English: New Orleans, French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is the largest city in the southern part of Louisiana in the United States. Facing the Gulf of Mexico, it is an important port city located at the mouth of the Mississippi River. It originally developed as an export port for agricultural products in the Mississippi River basin such as grains and cotton, and later developed as an industrial city and a tourist city. .. The English name New Orleans (English pronunciation: [njuːˈɔːrliənz]) and the French name La Nouvelle-Orléans (French pronunciation: [lanuvɛlɔrleɑ̃]) are named after Louis XV's Duke of Orleans, Philip II. Once the capital of French Louisiana, the city's French Quarter still retains the atmosphere of the French rule.

History

Colonial era

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as "La Nouvelle-Orléans" (French pronunciation: [lanuvɛlɔrleɑ̃]) under the guidance of Jean-Baptiste Le Moin de Bianville, 1722. Became the head of French Louisiana. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 made Louisiana a Spanish territory, but the town was mostly of French descent, with little influence from the suzerain, Spain.

19th century

Emperor Napoleon returned Louisiana to France in 1801, but sold it to the United States in 1803 due to financial needs (see the Louisiana Purchase for details). The population of the town at that time was about 10,000. Around this time, a black revolution broke out in French Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) in the Caribbean, and more French and Creole (mixed French and slaves) flowed into the town. In the War of 1812, the British were invaded, and in 1815 General Andrew Jackson defeated the British (Battle of New Orleans). Although the provincial capital moved to Baton Rouge in 1849, it still retains its position as the economic and cultural center of the state (although the provincial capital often found in the United States is located in a much smaller city than the largest city. Unlike, the two cities are in a competitive relationship).

20th century

Traditionally, urban construction was limited to areas on high ground facing the Mississippi River, as most of the area was wetlands, but civil engineer Baldwin Wood developed drainage pumps extensively in the 1910s. Made possible to develop. In 1917, the US Navy ordered the closure of Storyville, known as the Prostitution District. In 1923, the industrial waterway, which is the transportation line between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, was opened, and in 1965, the Mississippi River Bay mouth waterway, which is the road leading to the Gulf of Mexico, was opened, and the transportation route changed significantly. It became. In 1964, as part of the city's "modernization," the trams on Canal Street were abolished and replaced by buses. However, the tram was revived in 2004, boosted by voices regretting its abolition. In September 1965, Hurricane Betsy struck New Orleans, causing great damage to the Lower Ninth Ward and the surrounding cities of Arabi and Chalmette. In May 1995, floods caused by heavy rain caused flood damage. In 1978, New Orleans city council member Ernest Nathan was elected the first African-American mayor. 1984 New Orleans International River Expo.

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