Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
A map of the Kingdom of Hungary around the end of the 15th century
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) was a kingdom that once ruled over what is now Hungary.
Beginning of the Kingdom
In 955, the Magyars, who were defeated in the Battle of Rechfeld, had diplomatic ties with the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines), the Bulgarian Empire, or the Rus (Grand Duchy of Kievan Rus) in the early days after the war. In 973, Geza asked the Holy Roman Emperor to send missionaries and allowed them to spread Christianity to the Magyars. Geza's son Vajk was baptized in 985 by St. Adalbert of Prague and given the baptismal name of Istvan. In 997, after the death of his father Geza, István became the Great Emir, and conducted military expeditions to various places to unify Hungary. was crowned at Esztergom as King Stephen I of Hungary. Thus, the Kingdom of Hungary was officially established. After that, it was ruled by its family, the Árpad dynasty, for 300 years.
After that, the Kingdom of Hungary took control of Slovakia (Moravia) in the north, the Slavs of Croatia in the south, and extended its influence to Transylvania in Romania. During this period, Hungary was at its peak and reigned as a powerful country in Central Europe. The area of this period, known as the Land of the Crown of St. Stephen, occupied an important place in the Hungarian view of history. This gave rise to the concept that the future king of Hungary would be the one who would be crowned by Saint Stephen.
In 1240, it was invaded by the Mongol Empire Batu and suffered great damage (Mongol invasion of Poland). After this experience, the Hungarian king was forced to prepare a defensive system, and gave land to the nobles to build a strong fortress on their initiative. Similarly, from the point of view of defense, the development of cities with ramparts was required, and in addition to conventional cities, new cities were formed and developed with the opportunity of German settlers. Examples include Sibiu, Brasov, Bistrica and Kosice.
Habsburg and Ottoman
After that, in 1301, when the Arpat dynasty died out, an elected monarchy system was established, and in 1308, the Angevin family of the Kingdom of Naples became king (Hungary Angevin dynasty). After that, the hereditary dynasty continued, and during that time, he became not only the king of Hungary but also the king of Poland, but it ended in 1395. On the other hand, in the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire rose from the east and advanced into the Balkan Peninsula after the Battle of Kosovo. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary, organized a united Crusade against them, but was defeated at the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.
In the 15th century, Matthias I of the Hunyadi family, a member of the Transylvanian aristocracy, ascended to the throne with the overwhelming support of small and medium-sized aristocrats, and maintained a standing army to thrive. However, Hungary was under constant threat from the Ottoman Empire. At the Battle of Mohács in 1526, King Lajos II (Ludvik) of Hungary, who also served as King of Bohemia, suffered a crushing defeat, and the Jagiellonian dynasty ended. In this way, the crown was inherited by the Habsburgs, the archdukes of Austria, who were related by marriage.