November 28, 2021
Basque Country (Basque Country, Basque: Euskadi [eus̺kadi], Spanish: País Vasco [paˈiz ˈβasko], English: Basque Country, French: Pays Basque) is an autonomous state in northern Spain. It is located on the west side of the Pyrenees and faces the Bay of Biscay on the north side of the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of three prefectures: Alava, Biscay, and Gipuzkoa.
Spain The 1978 Constitution (the current Constitution) gave the Basque Country strong autonomy in Spain. Basque Country as an administrative division is based on the Gernica Charter (Statute of Autonomy of Basque: a basic legal document that provides a framework for the development of Basques living in Spanish Basque Country), but Navarra Province, where many Basques live. Was excluded from the Basque Country and became Navarra alone. There is no official capital in Basque Country, but Vitoria-Gasteiz in Alava, where the Basque Parliament and the headquarters of the Basque Country Government are located, is the de facto capital. The most populous municipality is Bilbao in Biscay.
Care should be taken to confuse the Basque Country, which is the cultural territory of the Basques' residence, with the Basque Country, which is the administrative division. The Basque language includes the Basque Country and the Basque Country, Euskal Herria and Euskadi, but these two types may refer only to the Basque Country or the entire Basque Country. It varies depending on the individual's position and political and social context. Euskal Herria means "Speaking Basque", and Euskal is a coined word of Sabino Arana, the founder of Basque nationalism. In Castilian, the Basque Country is called País Vasco or Euskadi, and the word Vasconia is sometimes used to refer to the entire Basque Country.
It borders Cantabria and Castile and Leon to the west, La Rioja to the south, Navarra and France to the east, and the Bay of Biscay in the Atlantic Ocean to the north. The Ebro River forms a natural border with La Rioja. The two Basque Mountains, which run parallel to the east and west, can geographically divide the Basque Country into three regions. The northern "Atlantic coast" facing the Bay of Biscay, the "Ebro valley" in the southern part of the Ebro basin that flows into the Mediterranean Sea, and the plateau area called the Alava basin in the middle of the two.
Small rivers such as the Nervión, Urora, Oria, Ulmea, and Bidasoa rivers that flow from the Basque Mountains in the north (Atlantic coast) into the Bay of Biscay form a small basin inland. The coastal area is lined with ria coasts and is composed of high cliffs and small coves, so it has a good natural harbor. There are few sandy beaches, and it is limited to some areas such as Lekeitio and San Sebastian. It features terrain such as Bilbao Abra Bay, Bilbao Estuary, Urdaibai River mouth, and Txingudi Bay, which forms the border with France. Coastal Basques are Europe's pioneers in whaling, and there are quite a few municipalities along the Bay of Biscay that include whale designs on their emblems, such as Bermeo, Ondarroa, Zarautz, and Hondarribia. The Biscaye Gulf region is said to be more groupist-oriented than the mountainous areas, as represented by cooperative whaling and pelagic fishing.
Middle part (Alava basin) The area between the two mountain ranges has a plateau called the Alava basin, and in the central part of the Alava basin is the provincial capital Vitoria-Gasteiz.