November 28, 2021
The Velvet Revolution (Velvet Revolution, Czech: Sametová revoluce, Czech pronunciation: [ˈsamɛtovaːˈrɛvolut͡sɛ], English: Velvet Revolution) broke out in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic on November 17, 1989, and was the Czechoslovak Socialist Party at the time. It is a democratic revolution that overthrew the holistic system. In Slovakia it is called the Quiet Revolution (Slovak: Nežná revolúcia, English: Gentle Revolution).
This revolution was named after the light and soft velvet fabric, as it did not cause as much bloodshed as the Romanian Revolution a month later.
On November 17, 1939, during the Second Republic, a demonstration against Nazi Germany's occupation of the Czech Republic was suppressed by German troops, resulting in a "university closure" that killed nine students. Was a national holiday as "International Student's Day". On November 17, 1989, the 50th anniversary of the incident, an anti-establishment student demonstration was held in Prague, and security forces suppressed it. Occurs until December. It refers to a series of events that led to the collapse of the Communist Party's government and the peaceful transition to a non-Communist Party's government due to the resignation of Czechoslovak Communist Party executives.
At the end of December of the same year, after the Czechoslovak Communist Party announced the abandonment of the government's monopoly and the dissolution of the one-party dictatorship on November 28, and the federal parliament on November 30 removed the one-party dictatorship clause from the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovak Republic. He brought the inauguration of President Alexander Dubček, President of the Federal Assembly, Vaclav Havel.
Furthermore, the significant delegation of authority to the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, which make up the federation, was promoted in the wake of this system change, which led to the dissolution of the federal system on January 1, 1993 (dissolution of Czechoslovation).
In Czechoslovakia, the reform movement "Prague Spring" led by Alexander Dubček, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, was crushed by the military intervention of the Warsaw Pact centered on the Soviet Union since 1969. Under the "normalization" route, the reformist Communist Party members were expelled and the people regarded as dissidents were expelled from the workplace. In addition, intellectuals involved in the group that announced Charter 77 in January 1977 were cracked down by the National Safety Forces (StB: Státní bezpečnost), a secret police agency of the Ministry of Interior (SNB: Sbor národní bezpečnosti). ..
During this period, the standard of living of the Czechoslovak people was better than that of other Eastern European countries, but the stagnation of the Eastern European market kept them lower than those of the Western countries, and the dissatisfaction among the people was increasing. ..
With the start of perestroika in the Soviet Union in 1985, the momentum for reform began to rise in Czechoslovakia. Husark initially supported the reform and open route on the surface, but remained a strong stance in the country. In 1987, Husark transferred the party's first secretary to Miloš Jakeš and turned the state-owned enterprise into a state-owned enterprise that transferred the corporate management rights of the ministries to the corporate side. Despite the launch, Husark continued to take control as president, maintaining the domestic regime and cracking down and arresting dissidents.
However, on August 19, 1989, when the Pan-European Picnic succeeded in Hungary, which was already democratizing, Czechoslovakia adjacent to Austria